Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 42, Issue 15, pp 6267–6273 | Cite as

Grain boundary analysis and secondary phases in LaCoO3-based perovskites

  • Per Erik VullumEmail author
  • Antonius T. J. van Helvoort
  • Randi Holmestad
  • Johann Mastin
  • Øystein E. Andersen
  • Mari-Ann Einarsrud
  • Tor Grande


Secondary phases and grain boundaries in LaCoO3 and La0.7Sr0.3CoO3−δ ceramics have been studied by transmission electron microscopy. Both materials contained small amounts of grains of a secondary phase; the face centered cubic spinel structure Co3O4, located at triple junctions. These grains were agglomerates of several smaller grains. High resolution electron microscopy combined with annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy were used to analyze the grain boundaries. In LaCoO3, the grain boundaries were sharp with stable compositions of La, Co and O across the boundaries. In La0.7Sr0.3CoO3−δ, a 1–2 nm thick intergranular layer between the grains was observed. This layer was rich in O and Co and deficient in Sr and La, compared to the nominal composition of the material.


High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy Co3O4 High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy LaCoO3 



This work was supported by NTNU, strategic area of materials and The Research Council of Norway, grants no. 140553/420, 158517/431, and 153329/V30.


  1. 1.
    Dimos D, Chaudhari P, Mannhart J (1990) Phys Rev B 41:4038CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ivanov ZG, Nilsson PA, Winkler D, Alarco JA, Claeson T, Stepantsov EA, Tzalenchuk AY (1991) Appl Phys Lett 59:3030CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Heinig NF, Redwing RD, Nordman JE, Larbalestier DC (1999) Phys Rev B 60:1409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hammerl G, Schmehl A, Schulz RR, Goetz B, Bielefeldt H, Schneider CW, Hilgenkamp H, Mannhart J (2000) Nature 407:162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kim YW, Mitomo M, Nishimura T (2002) J Am Ceram Soc. 85:1007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kim YW, Mitomo M, Nishimura T (2001) J Am Ceram Soc. 84:2060CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cinibulk MK, Kleebe HJ, Schneider GA, Ruhle M (1993) J Am Ceram Soc. 76:2801CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Tanaka I, Kleebe HJ, Cinibulk MK, Bruley J, Clarke DR, Ruhle M (1994) J Am Ceram Soc 77:911CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wang CM, Pan WQ, Hoffmann MJ, Cannon RM, Ruhle M (1996) J Am Ceram Soc 79:788CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mastin J, Einarsrud M-A, Grande T (2006) Chem Mater 18:1680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Thornton G, Tofield BC, Hewat AW (1986) J Solid State Chem 61:301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mineshige A, Inaba M, Yao TS, Ogumi Z, Kikuchi K, Kawase M (1996) J Solid State Chem 121:423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bouwmeester HJM, Gellings PJ (1997) The CRC handbook of solid state electrochemistry, CRC Press, Boca RatonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Williams DB, Carter CB (1996) Transmission electron microscopy. Plenum Press, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pennycook SJ, Jesson DE (1991) Ultramicroscopy 37:14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mitsuishi K, Takeguchi M, Yasuda H, Furuya K (2001) J Electron Microsc 50:157Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Watanabe K, Yamazaki T, Hashimoto I, Shiojiri M (2001) Phys Rev B 64:115432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Klie RF, Zhu Y (2005) Micron 36:219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Morin F, Trudel G, Denos Y (1997) Solid State Ionics 96:129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mastin J, Einarsrud M-A, Grande T (2006) Chem Mater 18:6047CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lide DR (1991) Handbook of chemistry and physics. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    King RB (1994) Encyclopedia of inorganic chemistry. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lein HL, Andersen ØS, Vullum PE, Lara-Curzio E, Holmestad R, Einarsrud M-A, Grande T (2006) J Solid State Electrochem 10:635CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Spence JCH, Taftø J (1983) J Micr 130:147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Perovic DD, Rossouw CJ, Howie A (1993) Utramicroscopy 52:353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hillyard S, Silcox J (1995) Ultramicroscopy 58:6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Libera M, Ott JA, Siangchaew K (1996) Ultramicroscopy 63:81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Abe E, Pennycook SJ, Tsai AP (2003) Nature 421:347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hartel P, Rose H, Dinges C (1996) Ultramicroscopy 63:93CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Per Erik Vullum
    • 1
    Email author
  • Antonius T. J. van Helvoort
    • 1
  • Randi Holmestad
    • 1
  • Johann Mastin
    • 2
  • Øystein E. Andersen
    • 2
  • Mari-Ann Einarsrud
    • 2
  • Tor Grande
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PhysicsNorwegian University of Science and TechnologyTrondheimNorway
  2. 2.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringNorwegian University of Science and TechnologyTrondheimNorway

Personalised recommendations