Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 42, Issue 15, pp 6183–6187 | Cite as

Woolrock—a material for technical use consisting of keratin

  • Manfred DrackEmail author
  • Robert Wimmer


This article debates the production of mouldings made of keratin. It is demonstrated that the properties of keratin allow for being processed with heat and pressure to manufacture tough mouldings without chemical preprocessing of the used wool. This material thus has a high potential as a bioplastic, because it potentially can be used with conventional plastic manufacturing techniques. Additionally, it might also serve as an adhesive in various applications. The biobased material might become a sustainable source for mouldings.


Polylactic Acid Injection Moulding Wool Fibre Material Wool Hemp Fibre 



We kindly thank Ille C. Gebeshuber for providing a measurement device and for carefully reading the manuscript.


  1. 1.
    Finlay MR (2003) J Ind Ecol, Special Issue: Ind Ecol Biobase Prod 7(3–4):33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Anex R (2003) J Ind Ecol, Special Issue: Ind Ecol Biobase Prod 7(3–4):1Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Stevens ES (2002) Green plastics: an introduction to the new science of biodegradable plastics. Princeton University Press, Princeton NJGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Drack M (2002) In: Pascola P, Brebbia C, Sucharov L (eds) Design and nature: comparing design in nature with science and engineering. WIT press, Southampton Boston, pp 369–378Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Drack M (2002) Bionik und Ecodesign – Untersuchung biogener Materialien im Hinblick auf Prinzipien, die für eine umweltgerechte Produktgestaltung nutzbar sind. PhD thesis, University of ViennaGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Vincent JFV (1990) Structural biomaterials. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, revised editionGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Marshall C, Gillespie J (1977) Aust J Biol Sci 30:389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Brockhaus multimedia premium. Original text from 1906. Bibliographisches Institut and F. A. Brockhaus AG, 2005. DVD LinuxGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Simon A, Dévényi T, Mátyás J, Pal Kralovánszky U, Method for producing industrial basic material processable by plastic industrial technologic method from natural materials consist of keratine. Patent HU 189252 from 1985-08-28Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Timmons SF, Blanchard CR, Smith RA, Method of cross-linking keratin-based films, sheets, and bulk materials. Patent WO 99/26570 from 1999-06-03Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    van Ingen G, Faber TA, Obdam J, Kolster P, Method for manufacturing a biodegradable thermoplastic material. Patent WO 98/03591 from 1998-01-29Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Groening HW, Deufel P, Chitinfilme und -fasern. Patent DE 2615952 from 1976-10-28Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hervey LRB, Keratin treating process and products thereof. Patent US 2814851 from 1957-12-03Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Happey F, Louis R, Verfahren zur Vorbehandlung von Keratin mit einem Oxydationsmittel. Patent DE 906007 from 1954-03-08Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Frankl E, Thermosetting keratinoid composition and method of making the same. Patent US 2623039 from 1952-12-23Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hornflowa Ltd., Neiger R, Nachazel V, Improvements relating to the production of keratin meal for use in moulding operations. Patent GB 590955 from 1947-08-01Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Joichi K, Process for preparing molding material by using keratin fiber as raw material, and use of molding material made by this preparing process. Patent JP 2002-167513 from 2002-06-11Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Satoshi M et al, Thermoplastic film, laminate, and production of the film. Patent JP 07-041569 from 1995-02-10Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tatsuya D et al, Keratin protein article molded by high-pressure molding. Patent JP 05-320358 from 1993-12-03Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Katoh K, Shibayamac M, Tanabea T, Yamauchia K (2004) Biomaterials 25(12):2265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bilitewski B, Härdtle G, Marek K (2000) Abfallwirtschaft – Handbuch für Praxis und Lehre. Springer Verlag, Berlin, 3rd ednGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Appropriate Technology (GrAT)Vienna University of TechnologyWienAustria
  2. 2.Department of Theoretical BiologyUniversity of ViennaWienAustria

Personalised recommendations