The X-ray scattering measurements were used to investigate Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 films prepared by sol–gel process. From analysis of specular and off-specular X-ray reflectivities, the morphology of nanoscale pores in Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 film was determined by adjusting a model to the observed data. It is found that nanoscale pores in the films were closely attributed to the precursor with higher molar concentration. Furthermore, nanoscale pores present a certain degree of order in the direction normal to the film surface, which mainly distribute near the interface between films and substrate. The pores gradually close with annealing time increasing, and the closing process of the pores leads to pit formation in the film surface.
Gyration Radius Normal Tensile Stress Lead Acetate Trihydrate Molar Concentration Precursor Zirconium Oxynitrate
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