Self-assembled Nb2O5 microcones with tailored crystallinity
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Metal oxides have found tremendous applications in numerous fields ranging from optical  and electronic  components in the form of electrochromic devices  and capacitors  to biocompatible, bioactive coatings on orthopedic implant materials [5, 6]. Titania [7, 8, 9, 10] and alumina [11, 12, 13, 14] are among the most widely studied metal oxides, and niobium oxide, for example, is considered a valuable candidate for biomaterial applications  due in part to its chemical inertness , thermodynamic stability  and low cytotoxicity . While metal oxides can be formed through various methodologies, anodization of metal oxides offers a convenient, efficient and relatively inexpensive method in producing metal oxides. Driven by an external power source, this process expedites normal metal oxidation, thus increasing the rate of metal oxide formation. As a result, the fast kinetics generally produce a largely amorphous oxide material. Much research has therefore been...