Advertisement

Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 41, Issue 14, pp 4505–4511 | Cite as

Irradiation of carbon nanotubes with a focused electron beam in the electron microscope

  • F. BanhartEmail author
Article

Abstract

The paper reviews in-situ electron irradiation studies of carbon nanotubes in electron microscopes. It is shown that electron irradiation at high specimen temperature can lead to a variety of structural modifications and new morphologies of nanotubes. Radiation defects such as vacancies and interstitials are created under irradiation, but the cylindrically closed graphene layers reconstruct locally and remain coherent. The generation of curvature in graphene layers with non-hexagonal rings allows us to alter the topology of nanotubes. Several examples of irradiation-induced modifications of single- and multi-wall nanotubes are shown. Conclusions about the mobility of interstitials and vacancies are drawn which are important to explain the behaviour and the properties of nanotubes with an atomic arrangement deviating from the hexagonal network of graphene.

Keywords

Electron Beam Graphene Layer Electron Irradiation Single Vacancy Field Emission Transmission Electron Microscopy 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The author is grateful to J.X. Li, L. Sun, A. Krasheninnikov, M. Terrones, P.M. Ajayan, D. Tománek, J.-C. Charlier, N. Grobert, Ph. Kohler-Redlich, T. Füller, and M. Ozawa for good collaboration during many years.

References

  1. 1.
    Harris PJF (1999) Carbon nanotubes and related structures. Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Iijima S (1991) Nature 354:56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Crespi VH, Chopra NG, Cohen ML, Zettl A, Louie SG (1996) Phys Rev B 54:5927CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kelly BT (1981) The physics of graphite, Applied Science, LondonGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Novoselov KS, Jiang D, Schedin F, Booth TJ, Khotkevich VV, Morozov SV, Geim AK (2005) Proc Nat Acad Sci 102:10451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Koike J, Pedraza DF (1994) J Mater Res 9:1899CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Telling RH, Ewels CP, El-Barbary AA, Heggie MI (2003) Nat Mater 2:333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Urita K, Suenaga K, Sugai T, Shinohara H, Iijima S (2005) Phys Rev Lett 94:155502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ugarte D (1992) Nature 359:707CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Banhart F (1999) Rep Progr Phys 62:1181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Smith BW, Luzzi DE (2001) J Appl Phys 90:3509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Burden AP, Hutchison JL (1996) J Cryst Growth 158:185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Krasheninnikov AV, Lehtinen PO, Foster AS, Nieminen RM (2006) Chem Phys Lett 418:132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Stone AJ, Wales DJ (1986) Chem Phys Lett 128:501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Terrones H, Terrones M, Hsu WK (1995) Chem Soc Rev 24:341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Terrones H, Terrones M, Hernandez E, Grobert N, Charlier J-C, Ajayan PM (2000) Phys Rev Lett 84:1716CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Krasheninnikov A, Nordlund K, Keinonen J (2002) Phys Rev B 65:165423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Krasheninnikov A, Nordlund K (2004) Nucl Instr Meth B 216:355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Banhart F, Li JX, Krasheninnikov AV (2005) Phys Rev B 71:241408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ajayan PM, Ravikumar V, Charlier J-C (1998) Phys Rev Lett 81:1437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Peng HY, Wang N, Zheng YF, Lifshitz Y, Kulik J, Zhang RQ, Lee CS, Lee ST (2000) Appl Phys Lett 77:2831CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Zhao X, Liu Y, Inoue S, Suzuki T, Jones RO, Ando Y (2004) Phys Rev Lett 92:125502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Krasheninnikov AV, Banhart F, Li JX, Foster AS, Nieminen RM (2005) Phys Rev B 72:125428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Li JX, Banhart F (2004) Nano Lett 4:1143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Banhart F, Li JX, Terrones M (2005) Small 1:953CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Terrones M, Terrones H, Banhart F, Charlier J-C, Ajayan PM (2000) Science 288:1226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Terrones M, Banhart F, Grobert N, Charlier J-C, Terrones H, Ajayan PM (2002) Phys Rev Lett 89:075505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Yoon M, Han S, Kim G, Lee S, Berber S, Osawa E, Ihm J, Terrones M, Banhart F, Charlier J-C, Grobert N, Terrones H, Ajayan P M, Tománek D (2004) Phys Rev Lett 92:075504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Miko C, Milas M, Seo JW, Couteau E, Barisic N, Gaal R, Forro L (2003) Appl Phys Lett 83:4622CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institut für Physikalische ChemieUniversität MainzMainzGermany

Personalised recommendations