Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 41, Issue 15, pp 4799–4805 | Cite as

The influence of γ-Al2O3 and Na2O on the formation of gyrolite in the stirring suspension

  • K. BaltakysEmail author
  • R. Siauciunas
Original Paper


Influence of γ-Al2O3, Na2O and hydrothermal synthesis parameters on the gyrolite formation process was established at 200 °C. The molar ratios of primary mixtures were CaO/(SiO2 + Al2O3) = 0.66 and Al2O3/(SiO2 + Al2O3) = 0 or 0.025. The amount of NaOH, corresponding to 5% of Na2O from the mass of dry materials, added in the form of solution. It was determined that in the stirred suspensions under favourable synthesis conditions (active SiO2 component, dispersive starting materials) gyrolite already forms after 16 h of isothermal curing at 200°C. The stirring affects the sequence of intermediate compounds: gyrolite crystallizes together with Z-phase. γ-Al2O3, as the additive in gyrolite synthesis is not usable, because it stimulates other calcium silicate hydrates formation. Na2O additive positively affects gyrolite synthesis because the duration of gyrolite synthesis shortens almost 2–3 times (6 h, 200°C) to compare with pure mixtures. However, gyrolite is not stable in the mixture with Na2O and begins to turn into pectolite already after 16 h of isothermal curing. Moreover, the presence of (Na2O + γ-Al2O3) additive stabilizes gyrolite and prevents its transformation to pectolite. Obtained results were confirmed by XRD, DSC and SEM/EDS analysis methods.


Na2O Initial Mixture Calcium Silicate Hydrate Simultaneous Thermal Analysis Tobermorite 



We gratefully thank A. Baltusnikas––a Head of X-ray diffraction analysis laboratory of KTU carrying out X-ray analysis experiments and for his constructive comments on the paper.


  1. 1.
    United States Patent, 4.274.881 (1981)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Garbev K, Black L, Beuchle G, Stemmermann P (2002) Wasser- und Geotechnologie 1:19Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Taylor HFW (1974) Crystal chemistry of Portland cement hydration, 6-th International Congress on the Chemistry of Cement. Research Institute VNIIESM of the Ministry of Building Materials Industry of the former USSR, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Taylor HFW (1997) Cement chemistry. Academic Press, San Diego CACrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Anderson T (1851) Philos Mag Sect 4(1):111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Seager A (1969) Mineral Mag 37:147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sukheswala RN, Avasia RK, Gangopadhyay M (1974) Mineral Mag 39:658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Anthony JW, Bideaux AR, Bladh HW, Nichols MC Handbook of mineralogy, Vol II, 1995Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Elton NJ, Hooper JJ, Holyer VAD (1998) Mineral Mag 62(2):271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mackay AL, Taylor HFW (1953) Mineral Mag 30:80Google Scholar
  11. 11., as on 17 July 2005;, as on 17 July 2005Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Flint EP, Mcmurdie HF, Wells LS (1938) J Res Natl Bur Stand 21:617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Meyer JW, Jaunarajs KL (1961) Am Mineral 46:913Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jauberthie R, Temimi M, Laquerbe M (1996) Cem Concr Res 26:1335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Števula L, Harman M, Horvath I, Putyera K (1990) Ceram -Silik 34:315Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Nocun-Wczelik W (1997) Cem Concr Res 27:83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Okada Y, Masuda T, Ishida H (1995) J Ceram Soc Japan 103:124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Siauciunas R, Baltakys K (2004) Cem Concr Res 34:2029CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Merlino S (1988) Mineral Mag 52:377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Stumm A, Garbev K, Beuchle G, Black L, Stemmermann P, Nqesch R (2004) Cem Concr Res 35(9):1665 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Shaw S, Henderson CMB, Clark SM (2002) Am Mineral 87:533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Winters MA, Richter JD, Sagar SL, Lee AL, Lander RJ (2003) Biotechnol Prog 19:440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kossik J (2004) BioProcess International 72Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    El-Korashy SA (2004) J Ion Exchange 15:2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    El-Korashy SA, Al-Wakeel EI, El-Hemaly SA, Rizk MA (2002) Egypt J Chem 45:723Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Siauciunas R, Baltakys K (2004) Cem Concr Res (in press)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Silicate TechnologyKaunas University of TechnologyKaunasLithuania

Personalised recommendations