Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 42, Issue 3, pp 966–978 | Cite as

Effect of heating mode and temperature on sintering of YAG dispersed 434L ferritic stainless steel

  • S. S. Panda
  • A. UpadhyayaEmail author
  • D. Agrawal


This study examines the effect of heating mode, sintering temperature, and varying yttria alumina garnet (YAG) addition (5 and 10 wt%) on the densification and properties of ferritic (434L) stainless steel. The straight 434L stainless steel and 434L–YAG composites were sintered in a conventional and a 2.45 GHz microwave furnace. The composites were sintered to solid-state as well as supersolidus sintering temperature at 1200 and 1400 °C, respectively. Both 434L and 434L–YAG compacts coupled with microwaves and underwent rapid heating (∼45 °C/min). This resulted in about 85% reduction in the processing time. For all compositions microwave sintering results in greater densification. As compared to conventional sintering, microwave sintered compacts exhibit a more refined microstructure, thereby, resulting in higher bulk hardness. The mechanical properties and sliding wear resistance of 434L stainless steel is shown to be sensitive both to the sintering condition as well as YAG addition and has been correlated to the effect of heating mode on the pore morphology.


Yttrium Aluminium Garnet Ferritic Stainless Steel Sintered Density Conventional Sinter Microwave Sinter 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support from Department of Science & Technology (DST) and Ministry of Human Resource and Development (MHRD), India. The microwave sintering experiments were conducted at the Microwave Research Center at Penn Sate University through partial financial support from DOE (grant no. DE-FC26-02NT41662). Assistance provided by Vintee Singh in experiments is also gratefully acknowledged.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Materials and Metallurgical EngineeringIndian Institute of TechnologyKanpurIndia
  2. 2.Materials Research InstituteThe Pennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA

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