Multi-bead overlapping model with varying cross-section profile for robotic GMAW-based additive manufacturing

  • Zeqi Hu
  • Xunpeng QinEmail author
  • Yifeng Li
  • Jiuxin Yuan
  • Qiang Wu


In robotic GMAW-based additive manufacturing, the surface evenness of the deposited layer was significant to the dimensional accuracy and the stable fabrication process, and it was determined by the multi-bead overlapping distance. To obtain the optimal overlapping distance, a group of two-bead overlapping experiments was conducted with different overlapping ratio. The cross-section shape was observed and the variation of the bead profile caused by the damming up of the previous bead was investigated. The second bead profile could be fitted by a rotated varying parabola or circular arc function with the decreasing of the overlapping distance from the initial single bead width (w) to 0. A varying cross-section profile overlapping model was developed based on the actual forming characteristics of the overlapping experiment, through which the varying profile of two overlapping beads with arbitrary distance could be predicted. Then, the optimal overlapping distance was calculated under some principles to achieve a relatively flat top surface and stable overlapping process, and the multi-bead overlapping experiments were performed to validate the model. The results showed that the model could achieve an excellent approximation to the actual overlapping experiment, and the good surface evenness and stable overlapping process was obtained, which was significant to the research into the appearance optimization in GMAW-based additive manufacturing.


Additive manufacturing Gas metal arc welding Bead overlapping model Varying cross-section profile 



The authors would like to thank all the staff of Hubei Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Automotive Components for supporting this work. The work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), No. 51575415, and the National Key R&D Program of China, No. 2018YFB1106500.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Automotive EngineeringWuhan University of TechnologyWuhanChina
  2. 2.Hubei Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Automotive ComponentsWuhanChina
  3. 3.Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Automotive Components TechnologyWuhanChina

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