Strategic orientation pathways in international new ventures and born global firms—Towards a research agenda

  • Natasha EversEmail author
  • Gabriela Gliga
  • Alex Rialp-Criado


This article offers insights into research on the strategic orientations of international new ventures (INVs) and born global firms (BGs) with the aim of presenting a conceptual research framework to guide future research on this topic. This article finds that while most extant research has focused on the relationships of various types of strategic orientations across INVs and BGs performance, further research should pay more attention to antecedents and factors influencing the strategic orientation pathways and international performance outcomes of these types of firms. The authors further introduce the content of this special issue of the JIEN, which contributes to the ongoing discussion on strategic orientations in the developing domain of international entrepreneurship (IE).


Strategic orientation International new ventures Born globals Research agenda 


Este artículo examina la actual línea de investigación sobre orientaciones estratégicas de las nuevas empresas internacionales (NEI) y empresas nacidas globales (ENG) con el objetivo de presentar un marco conceptual que guíe la investigación futura en esta área. Si bien el núcleo principal de investigación se ha centrado hasta ahora en las relaciones existentes entre varios tipos de orientaciones estratégicas y el rendimiento de las NEI y ENG, la investigación futura debería focalizarse también en comprender mejor los antecedentes o factores que influyen en dichas relaciones entre orientaciones estratégicas y el rendimiento internacional de este tipo de empresas. Los autores introducen además el contenido de este número especial de JIEN, el cual contribuye a desarrollar el debate sobre la relevancia de las orientaciones estratégicas en el creciente ámbito del emprendimiento internacional (EI).



We want to firstly express our thanks to JIEN Editor-in-Chief, Professor Hamid Etemad for inviting us to guest edit this special issue on this important area of strategic orientations in INVs and BGs. We also thank sincerely the reviewers of this issue:

Antonella Zucchella (University of Pavia, Italy)

Birgit Hagen (University of Pavia, Italy)

Charmaine Glavas (Queensland University Of Technology, Australia)

Gary A. Knight (Willamette University, USA)

Hélène Laurell (Halmstad University, Sweden)

Igor Laine (Lappeenranta- Lahti University of Technology, Finland)

Iñaki Peña (University of Deusto, Spain)

James M. Crick (Loughborough University, UK)

José C. Casillas (University of Seville, Spain)

José Luis González- Pernía (University of Deusto, Spain)

María Ripollés Meliá (Jaume I University, Spain)

Martin Hannibal (University of Southern Denmark, Denmark)

Mika Gabrielsson (Helsinki School of Economics, Finland)

Niina Nummela (University of Turku, Finland)

Øystein Moen (Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway)

Per Servais (Linnaeus University, Sweden)

Peter Gabrielsson (University of Vaasa, Finland)

Sami Saarenketo (Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland)

Stephan Gerschewski (University of Reading, UK)

Susanne Sandberg (Linnaeus University, Sweden)

Svante Andersson (Halmstad University, Sweden)

Tage Koed Madsen (University of Southern Denmark, Denmark)

Tiia Vissak (University of Tartu, Estonia)

Tuija Mainela (University of Oulu, Finland)

Witold Nowiński (WSB University in Poznan, Poland)


  1. Acosta A, Crespo A, Agudo J (2018) Effect of market orientation, network capability and entrepreneurial orientation on international performance of small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Int Bus Rev 27:1128–1140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andersson S, Evers N, Gliga G (2018) Entrepreneurial marketing and born global internationalisation in China. Qual Mark Res Int J 21(2):202–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andersson S, Evers N (2015) International opportunity recognition in international new ventures—a dynamic managerial capabilities perspective. J Int Entrep 13(3):260–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Andersson S, Evers N, Griot C (2013) Local and international networks in small firm internationalization: cases from the Rhone-Alpes medical technology regional cluster. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development 25(9–10):867–888CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aspelund A, Madsen TK, Moen O (2007) A review of the foundation, international marketing strategies, and performance of international new ventures. Eur J Mark 41(11/12):1423–1448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Atuahene-Gima K, Ko A (2001) An empirical investigation of the effect of market orientation and entrepreneurship orientation alignment on product innovation. Organ Sci 12(1):54–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Autio E (2005) Creative tension: the significance of Ben Oviatt’s and Patricia McDougall’s article “Toward a theory of international new ventures.” J Int Bus Stud 36(1):9–19Google Scholar
  8. Autio E, Sapienza HJ, Almeida JG (2000) Effects of age at entry, knowledge intensity, and imitability on international growth. Acad Manag J 43(5):909–924Google Scholar
  9. Baker WE, Sinkula JM (1999) The synergistic effect of market orientation and learning orientation on organizational performance. Acad Market Sci J 27:411–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Baker WE, Sinkula JM (2007) Does market orientation facilitate balanced innovation programs? An organizational learning perspective. J Prod Innov Manag 24(4):316–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Baker WE, Sinkula JM (2009) The complementary effects of market orientation and entrepreneurial orientation on profitability in small businesses. J Small Bus Manag 47(4):443–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Balabanis GI, Katsikea ES (2003) Being an entrepreneurial exporter: does it pay? Int Bus Rev 12(2):233–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Becherer RC, Maurer JG (1997) The moderating effect of environmental variables on the entrepreneurial and marketing orientation of entrepreneur-led firms. Enterp Theory Pract 22:47–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Berthon P, Hulbert J, Pitt L (2004) Innovation or customer orientation? An empirical investigation. Eur J Mark 38:1065–1090CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bhuian SN, Menguc B, Bell SJ (2005) Just entrepreneurial enough: the moderating effect of entrepreneurship on the relationship between market orientation and performance. J Bus Res 58:9–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Boso N, Cadogan JW, Story VM (2012) Complementary effect of entrepreneurial and market orientations on export new product success under differing levels of competitive intensity and financial capital. Int Bus Rev 21(4):667–681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Boso N, Story VM, Cadogan JW (2013) Entrepreneurial orientation, market orientation, network ties, and performance: study of entrepreneurial firms in a developing economy. J Bus Ventur 28(6):708–727CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cadogan JW, Kuivalainen O, Sundqvist S (2009) Export market-oriented behavior and export performance: quadratic and moderating effects under differing degrees of market dynamism and internationalization. J Int Mark 17(4):71–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cadogan JW (2012) International marketing, strategic orientations and business success. Int Mark Rev 29(4):340–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Calantone RJ, Cavusgil ST, Zhao Y (2002) Learning orientation, firm innovation capability, and firm performance. Ind Mark Manag 31(6):515–524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cavusgil ST, Knight G (2015) The born global firm: an entrepreneurial and capabilities perspective on early and rapid internationalization. J Int Bus Stud 46(1):3–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cavusgil ST, Zou S (1994) Marketing Strategy-Performance Relationship: An Investigation of the Empirical Link in Export Market Ventures. Journal of Marketing 58 (1):1–21Google Scholar
  23. Cesinger B, Fink M, Madsen TK, Kraus S (2012) Rapidly internationalizing ventures: how definitions can bridge the gap across contexts. Manag Decis 50(10):1816–1842CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Chen J, Sousa CM, He X (2016) The determinants of export performance: a review of the literature 2006-2014. Int Mark Rev 33(5):626–670CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Coviello N (2015) Re-thinking research on born globals. J Int Bus Stud 46(1):17–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Coviello N, Jones MV (2004) Methodological issues in international entrepreneurship research. J Bus Ventur 19(4):485–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Covin JG, Miller D (2014) International entrepreneurial orientation: conceptual considerations, research themes, measurement issues, and future research directions. Entrep Theory Pract 38(1):11–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dess GG, Davis PS (1984) Porter’s (1980) generic strategies as determinants of strategic group membership and organizational performance. Acad Manag J 27(3):467–488Google Scholar
  29. Dimitratos P, Lioukas S, Carter S (2004) The relationship between entrepreneurship and international performance: the importance of domestic environment. Int Bus Rev 13(1):19–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ellis PD (2007) Distance, dependence and diversity of markets: effects on market orientation. J Int Bus Stud 38(3):374–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Etemad H (2004) International entrepreneurship as a dynamic adaptive system: towards a grounded theory. J Int Entrep 2(1and 2):5–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Etemad H (2019) Revisiting interactions of entrepreneurial, marketing, and other orientations with internationalization strategies. J Int Entrep 17(1):1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Evered R (1983) So what is strategy? Long Range Plan 16(3):57–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Evers N (2011) Market orientation in new export ventures. Int J Entrep Innov Manag 13(3–4):357–376Google Scholar
  35. Evers N (2010) Factors influencing the internationalization of new ventures in the Irish aquaculture industry: an exploratory study. J Int Entrep 8(4):392–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Farrell MA (2000) Developing a market-oriented learning organization. Aust J Manag 25:201–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Fletcher D (2004) International entrepreneurship and the small business. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development 16(4):289–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Frishammar J, Andersson S (2009) The overestimated role of strategic orientations for international performance in smaller firms. J Int Entrep 7(1):57–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Frishammar J, Hörte S (2007) The role of market orientation and entrepreneurial orientation for new product development performance in manufacturing firms. Tech Anal Strat Manag 19:765–788CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gabrielsson M, Gabrielsson P, Dimitratos P (2014) International entrepreneurial culture and growth of international new ventures. Manag Int Rev 54(4):445–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gerschewski S, Lew YK, Khan Z, Park BI (2018) Post-entry performance of international new ventures: the mediating role of learning orientation. Int Small Bus J 36(7):807–828CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gerschewski S, Rose EL, Lindsay VJ (2015) Understanding the drivers of international performance for born global firms: an integrated perspective. J World Bus 50(3):558–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hagen B, Zucchella A, Cerchiello P, De Giovanni N (2012) International strategy and performance— clustering strategic types of SMEs. Int Bus Rev 21(3):369–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hakala H (2011) Strategic orientations in management literature: three approaches to understanding the interaction between market, technology, entrepreneurial, and learning orientations. Int J Manag Rev 13:199–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Harrison RT, Leitch CM (2005) Entrepreneurial learning: researching the interface between learning and the entrepreneurial context. Entrep Theory Pract 29(4):351–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Horintha P, Lages C, Lages LF (2011) The trade-off between customer and technology orientations: impact on innovation capabilities and export performance. J Int Mark 19(3):36–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hult GTM, Ketchen DJ Jr (2001) Does market orientation matter? A test of the relationship between positional advantage and performance. Strateg Manag J 22(9):899–906CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ibeh KI, Ibrahim E, Panayides PM (2006) International market success among smaller agri-food companies: some case study evidence. Int J Entrep Behav Res 12(2):85–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Jantunen A, Nummela N, Puumalainen K, Saarenketo S (2008) Strategic orientations of born globals-do they really matter? J World Bus 43(2):158–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Jantunen A, Puumalainen K, Saarenketo S, Kyläheiko K (2005) Entrepreneurial orientation, dynamic capabilities, and international performance. J Int Entrep 3(3):222–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Jaworski BJ, Kohli AK (1993) Market orientation: antecedents and consequences. J Mark 57(3):53–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Jolly VK, Alahuhta M, Jeannet JP (1992) Challenging the incumbents: how high technology start-ups compete globally. Strateg Chang 1(2):71–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kaya N, Seyrek IH (2005) Performance impacts of strategic orientations: evidence from Turkish manufacturing firms. J Am Acad Bus Camb 6:68–71Google Scholar
  54. Kirca AH, Jayachandran S, Bearden WO (2005) Market orientation: a meta-analytic review and assessment of its antecedents and impact on performance. J Mark 69:24–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Knight GA (2000) Entrepreneurship and marketing strategy: the SME under globalization. J Int Mark 8(2):12–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Knight GA, Cavusgil ST (2004) Innovation, organizational capabilities, and the born-global firm. J Int Bus Stud 35(2):124–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Knotts TL, Jones SC, Brown KL (2008) The effect of strategic orientation and gender on survival: a study of potential mass merchandising suppliers. J Dev Entrep 13:99–113Google Scholar
  58. Kropp F, Lindsay NJ, Shoham A (2006) Entrepreneurial, market, and learning orientations and international entrepreneurial business venture performance in south African firms. Int Mark Rev 23(5):504–523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kuivalainen O, Sundqvist S, Servais P (2007) Firms’ degree of born-globalness, international entrepreneurial orientation and expert performance. J World Bus 42(3):253–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kuivalainen O, Sundqvist S, Puumalainen K, Cadogan JW (2004) The effect of environmental turbulence and leader characteristics on international performance: are knowledge-based firms different? Can J Adm Sci 21(1):35–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lado AA, Boyd NG, Wright P (1992) A competency-based model of sustainable competitive advantage: toward a conceptual integration. J Manag 18(1):77–91Google Scholar
  62. Lages LF, Lagesn CR (2004) The STEP Scale: A Measure of Short-Term Export Performance Improvement. Journal of International Marketing 12 (1):36–56Google Scholar
  63. Leonidou LC, Katsikeas CS, Samiee S (2002) Marketing strategy determinants of export performance: a meta-analysis. J Bus Res 55(1):51–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Li Y, Zhao Y, Tan J, Liu Y (2008) Moderating effects of entrepreneurial orientation on market orientation–performance linkage: evidence from Chinese small firms. J Small Bus Manag 46:113–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. LiPuma JA, Newbert SL, Doh JP (2013) The effect of institutional quality on firm export performance in emerging economies: a contingency model of firm age and size. Small Bus Econ 40(4):817–841CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Liu SS, Luo X, Shi YZ (2003) Market-oriented organizations in an emerging economy: a study of missing links. J Bus Res 56:481–491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Liu Y, Li Y, Xue J (2011) Ownership, strategic orientation and internationalization in emerging markets. J World Bus 46(3):381–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lukas BA, Ferrell OC (2000) The effect of market orientation on product innovation. J Acad Mark Sci 28(2):239–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Lumpkin GT, Dess GG (1996) Clarifying the entrepreneurial orientation construct and linking it to performance. Acad Manag Rev 21(1):135–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Madsen TK (2013) Early and rapidly internationalizing ventures: similarities and differences between classifications based on the original international new venture and born global literatures. J Int Entrep 11(1):65–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Madsen TK, Moen Ø (2018) Managerial assessments of export performance: what do they reflect? Int Bus Rev 27(2):380–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Madsen TK (1998) Executive Insights: Managerial Judgment of Export Performance. Journal of International Marketing 6 (3):82–93Google Scholar
  73. Madsen TK, Servais P (1997) The internationalization of born globals: an evolutionary process? Int Bus Rev 6(6):561–583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Manu FA, Sriram V (1996) Innovation, marketing strategy, environment, and performance. J Bus Res 35(1):79–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. March JG (1991) Exploration and exploitation in organizational learning. Organ Sci 2(1):71–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Martin SL, Javalgi RG (2019) Explaining performance determinants: a knowledge based view of international new ventures. J Bus Res 101:615–626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Martin SL, Javalgi RG (2016) Entrepreneurial orientation, marketing capabilities and performance: the moderating role of competitive intensity on Latin American international new ventures. J Bus Res 69(6):2040–2051CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Matsuno K, Mentzer JT, Özsomer A (2002) The effects of entrepreneurial proclivity and market orientation on business performance. J Mark 66(3):18–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Mavondo FT, Chimhanzi J, Stewart J (2005) Learning orientation and market orientation: relationship with innovation, human resource practices and performance. Eur J Mark 39(11/12):1235–1263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. McDougall P, Shane S, Oviatt BM (1994) Explaining the formation of international new ventures: the limits of theories from international business research. J Bus Ventur 9(6):469–487. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. McDougall–Covin P, Jones MV, Serapio MG (2014) High–potential concepts, phenomena, and theories for the advancement of international entrepreneurship research. Entrep Theory Pract 38(1):1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Miles MP, Arnold DR (1991) The relationship between marketing orientation and entrepreneurial orientation. Enterp Theory Pract 15:49–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Moen Ø, Servais P (2002) Born global or gradual global? Examining the export behavior of small and medium-sized enterprises. J Int Mark 10(3):49–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Moen Ø (2002) The born globals: a new generation of small European exporters. Int Mark Rev 19(2):156–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Monferrer, D., Blesa, A. and Ripollés, M. (2012) International market orientation and management capabilities as determinants of the new ventures’ international behaviour. Econ Res, 2012,
  86. Morris MH, Coombes S, Allen J, Schindehutte M (2007) Antecedents and outcomes of entrepreneurship in a non-profit context: theoretical and empirical insights. J Leadersh Org Stud 13(4):1–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Noble CH, Sinha RK, Kumar A (2002) Market orientation and alternative strategic orientations: a longitudinal assessment of performance implications. J Mark 66(4):25–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. North DC (1990) A transaction cost theory of politics. J Theor Polit 2(4):355–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Nummela N (2004) Is the globe becoming small or the small becoming global? Globalization and internationalizing SMEs. In: Jones MV, Dimitratos P (eds) Emerging paradigms in international entrepreneurship. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK, pp 128–151Google Scholar
  90. Odorici V, Presutti M (2013) The entrepreneurial experience and strategic orientation of high-tech born global start-ups: an analysis of novice and habitual entrepreneurs. J Int Entrep 11(3):268–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Oviatt BM, McDougall PP (1994) Toward a theory of international new ventures. J Int Bus Stud 25(1):45–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Oviatt BM, McDougall PP (2005) Defining international entrepreneurship and modelling the speed of internationalization. Entrep Theory Pract 29(5):537–553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Oviatt BM, McDougall PP (1997) Challenges for internationalization process theory: the case of international new ventures. MIR: Management International Review 37:85–99Google Scholar
  94. Pelham AM, Wilson DT (1995) A longitudinal study of the impact of market structure, firm structure, strategy, and market orientation culture on dimensions of small-firm performance. J Acad Mark Sci 24(1):27–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Porter ME (1980) Competitive strategy: techniques for analyzing industries and competitors. Free Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  96. Rauch A, Wiklund J, Lumpkin GT, Frese M (2009) Entrepreneurial orientation and business performance: an assessment of past research and suggestions for the future. Entrep Theory Pract 33(3):761–787CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Rialp A, Rialp J, Urbano D, Vaillant Y (2005) The born-global phenomenon: a comparative case study research. J Int Entrep 3(2):133–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Ripollés M, Blesa A, Monferrer D (2012) Factors enhancing the choice of higher resource commitment entry modes in international new ventures. Int Bus Rev 21(4):648–666Google Scholar
  99. Ripollés-Meliá M, Menguzzato-Boulard M, Sánchez-Peinado L (2007) Entrepreneurial orientation and international commitment. J Int Entrep 5(3–4):65–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Romanello R, Chiarvesio M (2019) Early internationalizing firms: 2004–2018. J Int Entrep.
  101. Rose GM, Shoham A (2002) Export performance and market orientation: establishing an empirical link. J Bus Res 55(3):217Sapienza HJ, Smith KG, Gannon MJ (1988) Using Subjective Evaluations of Organizational Performance in Small Business Research. American Journal of Small Business 12 (3):45–54Google Scholar
  102. Ruokonen M, Saarenketo S (2009) The strategic orientations of rapidly internationalizing software companies. Eur Bus Rev 21:17–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Sapienza HJ, Smith KG, Gannon MJ (1988) Using Subjective Evaluations of Organizational Performance in Small Business Research. American Journal of Small Business 12 (3):45–54Google Scholar
  104. Sarasvathy SD (2001) Causation and effectuation: toward a theoretical shift from economic inevitability to entrepreneurial contingency. Acad Manag Rev 26(2):243–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Schindehutte M, Morris MH, Kocak A (2008) Understanding market-driving behavior: the role of entrepreneurship. J Small Bus Manag 46:4–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Shaw V (2000) Successful marketing strategies of German companies in the UK. Eur J Mark 34:91–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Sundqvist S, Kylaheiko K, Kuivalainen O (2012) Kirznerian and Schumpeterian entrepreneurial-oriented behavior in turbulent export markets. Int Mark Rev 29(2):203–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Teece DJ, Pisano G, Shuen A (1997) Dynamic capabilities and strategic management. Strateg Manag J 18(7):509–533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Torres-Ortega R, Rialp-Criado A, Rialp-Criado J, Stoian MC (2015) How to measure born-global firms’ orientation towards international markets? Revista Española de Investigación de Marketing ESIC 19(2):107–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Tzokas N, Carter S, Kyriazopoulos P (2001) Marketing and entrepreneurial orientation in small firms. Enterp Innov Manag Stud 2:19–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Venkatraman N (1989) The concept of fit in strategy research: toward verbal and statistical correspondence. Acad Manag Rev 14(3):423–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Verhees FJ, Meulenberg MT (2004) Market orientation, innovativeness, product innovation, and performance in small firms. J Small Bus Manag 42(2):134–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Voss GB, Voss ZG (2000) Strategic orientation and firm performance in an artistic environment. J Mark 64:67–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Wang CL (2008) Entrepreneurial orientation, learning orientation, and firm performance. Entrep theory Pract 32(4):635–657CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Welch DE, Welch LS (1996) The internationalization process and networks: a strategic management perspective. J Int Mark 4(3):11–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Wiklund J (1999) The sustainability of the entrepreneurial orientation–performance relationship. Entrep Theory Pract 24:37–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Wiklund J, Shepherd D (2005) Entrepreneurial orientation and small business performance: a configurational approach. J Bus Ventur 20:71–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Young S, Dimitratos P, Dana LP (2003) International entrepreneurship research: what scope for international business theories? J Int Entrep 1(1):31–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Zahra SA, Covin JG (1995) Contextual influences on the corporate entrepreneurship—performance relationship: a longitudinal analysis. J Bus Ventur 10(1):43–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Zahra SA, Ireland RD, Hitt MA (2000) International expansion by new venture firms: international diversity, mode of market entry, technological learning, and performance. Acad Manag J 43(5):925–950Google Scholar
  121. Zahra SA (1991) Predictors and financial outcomes of corporate entrepreneurship: an exploratory study. J Bus Ventur 6(4):259–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Zhang M, Sarker S, Sarker S (2012a) Drivers and export performance impacts of IT capability in “born-global” firms: a cross-national study. Inf Syst J.
  123. Zhang M, Tansuhaj P, McCullough J (2009) International entrepreneurial capability: the measurement and a comparison between born global firms and traditional importers in China. J Int Entrep 7(4):292–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Zhang X, Ma X, Wang Y (2012b) Entrepreneurial orientation, social capital, and the internationalization of SMEs: evidence from China. Thunderbird Int Bus Rev 54(2):195–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Zhou KZ, Yim CKB, Tse DK (2005) The effects of strategic orientations on technology- and market-based breakthrough innovations. J Mark 69:42–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Zhou L (2007) The effects of entrepreneurial proclivity and foreign market knowledge on early internationalization. J World Bus 42(3):281–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Trinity Business SchoolTrinity CollegeDublinIreland
  2. 2.Marketing Discipline, J.E. Cairnes School of Business & EconomicsNational University of IrelandGalwayIreland
  3. 3.Departament d’EmpresaUniversitat Autonoma de BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain
  4. 4.Department of Industrial Economics & Technology ManagementNorwegian University of Science and TechnologyTrondheimNorway

Personalised recommendations