Advertisement

Journal of International Entrepreneurship

, Volume 16, Issue 2, pp 176–209 | Cite as

Evaluations of export feasibility by immigrant and non-immigrant entrepreneurs in new technology-based firms

  • Daniela Bolzani
  • Cristina Boari
Article
  • 171 Downloads

Abstract

Entrepreneurs evaluate the feasibility of future export opportunities according to individual-level factors and perceived environmental conditions. However, because individual entrepreneurs are heterogeneous in their characteristics, previous experiences, and perceptions of environment, entrepreneurs will differ in their evaluations of internationalization feasibility. In this paper, we investigate whether and how one relevant source of entrepreneur heterogeneity, i.e., migrant condition, impacts the perceived feasibility of exporting opportunities. Drawing on rich primary data collected from a matched-pair sample of 71 immigrant and 69 native entrepreneurs active in non-internationalized new technology-based firms in Italy, we find that the migrant condition positively moderates the relationship between perceived financial public support and perceived feasibility of exporting, whereas it negatively moderates the relationship between international business skills and perceived export feasibility. We discuss the implications of these findings for research and policy in the area of international entrepreneurship.

Keywords

International entrepreneurship Exporting Opportunity evaluation Entrepreneurial intention Immigrant entrepreneurs New technology-based firms 

References

  1. Acedo FJ, Florin J (2006) An entrepreneurial cognition perspective on the internationalization of SMEs. J Int Entrep 4(1):49–67.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10843-006-0482-9 Google Scholar
  2. Aiken LS, West SG (1991) Multiple regression: testing and interpreting interactions. Sage, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. Ajzen I (1991) The theory of planned behavior. Organ Behav Hum Decis Process 50(2):179–211.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0749-5978(91)90020-T Google Scholar
  4. Ajzen I (2002) Perceived behavioral control, self-efficacy, locus of control, and the theory of planned behavior. J App Soc Psychol 32(4):665–683.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.2002.tb00236.x Google Scholar
  5. Ajzen I, Fishbein M (1980) Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior. Prentice Hall, Englewood CliffsGoogle Scholar
  6. Ajzen I, Madden TJ (1986) Prediction of goal-directed behavior: attitudes, intentions, and perceived behavioral control. J Exp Soc Psychol 22(5):453–474.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-1031(86)90045-4 Google Scholar
  7. Aldrich HE, Waldinger R (1990) Ethnicity and entrepreneurship. Annu Rev Sociol 16(1):111–135.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.so.16.080190.000551 Google Scholar
  8. Aliaga-Isla R, Rialp A (2013) Systematic review of immigrant entrepreneurship literature: previous findings and ways forward. Entrep Reg Dev 25(9–10):819–844Google Scholar
  9. Almus M, Nerlinger EA (1999) Growth of new technology-based firms: which factors matter? Small Bus Econ 13(2):141–154.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1008138709724 Google Scholar
  10. Andersson S, Gabrielsson J, Wictor I (2004) International activities in small firms: examining factors influencing the internationalization and export growth of small firms. Can J Admin Sci 21(1):22–34Google Scholar
  11. Arora A, Jaju A, Kefalas AG, Perenich T (2004) An explanatory analysis of global managerial mindsets: a case of U.S. textile and apparel industry. J Int Manag 10(3):393–411.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intman.2004.05.001 Google Scholar
  12. Arrighetti A, Bolzani D, Lasagni A (2014) Beyond the enclave? Break-outs into mainstream markets and multicultural hybridism in ethnic firms. Entrep Reg Dev 26(9–10):753–777Google Scholar
  13. Autio E (1997) New, technology-based firms in innovation networks symplectic and generative impacts. Res Pol 26(3):263–281.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0048-7333(96)00906-7 Google Scholar
  14. Axinn CN (1988) Export performance: do managerial perceptions make a difference? Int Market Rev 5(2):61–71.  https://doi.org/10.1108/eb008353 Google Scholar
  15. Bagwell S (2015) Transnational entrepreneurship amongst Vietnamese businesses in London. J Ethn Migr Stud 41(2):329–349.  https://doi.org/10.1080/1369183X.2014.907739 Google Scholar
  16. Bandura A (1997) Self-efficacy: the exercise of control. Freeman, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  17. Bandura A (2000) Exercise of human agency trough collective efficacy. Curr Dir Psychol Sci 9(3):75–78.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8721.00064 Google Scholar
  18. Barkema HG, Shvyrkov O (2007) Does top management team diversity promote or hamper foreign expansion? Strat Manag J 28(7):663–680.  https://doi.org/10.1002/smj.604 Google Scholar
  19. Baum M, Schwens C, Kabst R (2013) International as opposed to domestic new venturing: the moderating role of perceived barriers to internationalization. Int Small Bus J 31(5):536–562.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0266242611428343 Google Scholar
  20. Bilkey WJ (1978) An attempted integration of the literature on the export behavior of firms. J Int Bus Stud 9(1):33–46.  https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490649 Google Scholar
  21. Bird B (1988) Implementing entrepreneurial ideas: the case for intentions. Acad Manag Rev 13:442–454Google Scholar
  22. Birley S, Westhead P (1993) A comparison of new businesses established by ‘novice’ and ‘habitual’ founders in Great Britain. Int Small Bus J 12(1):38–60.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0266242693121003 Google Scholar
  23. Bloodgood JM, Sapienza HJ, Almeida JG (1996) The internationalization of new high-potential U.S. ventures: antecedents and outcomes. Entrep Theory Pract 20(4):61–76Google Scholar
  24. Bolívar-Cruz A, Batista-Canino RM, Hormiga E (2014) Differences in the perception and exploitation of entrepreneurial opportunities by immigrants. J Bus Vent Ins 1-2:31–36.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbvi.2014.09.005 Google Scholar
  25. Bolzani D, Foo MD (2017) The ‘why’ of international entrepreneurship: insights into the role of personal values. Small Bus Econ.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11187-017-9945-8
  26. Bonaccorsi A (1992) On the relationship between firm size and export intensity. J Int Bus Stud 23(4):605–635.  https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490280 Google Scholar
  27. Brush CG, Edelman LF, Manolova T (2002) The impact of resources on small firm internationalization. J Small Bus Strat 13(1):1–17Google Scholar
  28. Brzozowski J, Cucculelli M, Surdej A (2014) Transnational ties and performance of immigrant entrepreneurs: the role of home-country conditions. Entrep Reg Dev 26(7–8):546–573Google Scholar
  29. Caligiuri P, Lazarova M, Zehetbauer S (2004) Top managers' national diversity and boundary spanning. J Manag Dev 23(9):848–859Google Scholar
  30. Carbonell JR, Hernandez JCP, García FJL (2014) Business creation by immigrant entrepreneurs in the Valencian community. The influence of education. Int Entrep Manag J 10(2):409–426.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11365-011-0211-2 Google Scholar
  31. Carter S, Mwaura S, Ram M, Trehan K, Jones T (2015) Barriers to ethnic minority and women’s enterprise: existing evidence, policy tensions and unsettled questions. Int Small Bus J 33(1):49–69.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0266242614556823 Google Scholar
  32. Cerdin JL, Diné MA, Brewster C (2014) Qualified immigrants’ success: exploring the motivation to migrate and to integrate. J Int Bus Stud 45(2):151–168.  https://doi.org/10.1057/jibs.2013.45 Google Scholar
  33. Chaganti R, Greene PG (2002) Who are ethnic entrepreneurs? A study of entrepreneurs’ ethnic involvement and business characteristics. J Small Bus Manag 40(2):126–143.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1540-627X.00045 Google Scholar
  34. Chaganti RRS, Watts AD, Chaganti R, Zimmerman-Treichel M (2008) Ethnic-immigrants in founding teams: effects on prospector strategy and performance in new internet ventures. J Bus Vent 23(1):113–139.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusvent.2006.07.004 Google Scholar
  35. Chiswick BR (1978) The effect of Americanization on the earnings of foreign-born men. J Pol Econ 86(5):897–921.  https://doi.org/10.1086/260717 Google Scholar
  36. Chung HFL (2004) An empirical investigation of immigrant effects: the experience of firms operating in the emerging markets. Int Bus Rev 13(6):705–728.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibusrev.2004.09.001 Google Scholar
  37. Cohen J, Cohen P (1983) Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, HillsdaleGoogle Scholar
  38. Colombo MG, Del Mastro M, Grilli L (2004) Entrepreneurs’ human capital and the start-up size of new technology-based firms. Int J Indust Org 22(8-9):1183–1211.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijindorg.2004.06.006 Google Scholar
  39. Constant A, Zimmerman K (2006) The making of entrepreneurs in Germany: are native men and immigrants alike? Small Bus Econ 26(3):279–300.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11187-005-3004-6 Google Scholar
  40. Cooper AC, Gimeno-Gascon FJ, Woo CY (1994) Initial human and financial capital predictors of new venture performance. J Bus Vent 9(5):371–395.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0883-9026(94)90013-2 Google Scholar
  41. Coviello NE, Jones MV (2004) Methodological issues in international entrepreneurship research. J Bus Vent 19(4):485–508.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusvent.2003.06.001 Google Scholar
  42. Crick D, Chaudhry S, Batstone S (2001) An investigation into the overseas expansion of small Asian-owned U.K. firms. Small Bus Econ 16(2):75–94.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1011180017485 Google Scholar
  43. Cuervo A (2005) Individual and environmental determinants of entrepreneurship. Int Entrep Manag J 1(3):293–311.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11365-005-2591-7 Google Scholar
  44. Dawson JF (2014) Moderation in management research: what, why, when and how. J Bus Psych 29(1):1–19.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10869-013-9308-7 Google Scholar
  45. Dimitratos P, Lioukas S, Carter S (2004) The relationship between entrepreneurship and international performance: the importance of domestic environment. Int Bus Rev 13(1):19–41.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibusrev.2003.08.001 Google Scholar
  46. Ditchl E, Koeglmayr HG, Mueller S (1990) International orientation as a precondition for export success. J Int Bus Stud 21(1):23–40Google Scholar
  47. Drori I, Honig B, Wright M (2009) Transnational entrepreneurship: an emergent field of study. Entrep Theory Pract 33(5):1001–1022.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6520.2009.00332.x Google Scholar
  48. Elo M (2016) Typology of diaspora entrepreneurship: case studies in Uzbekistan. J Int Entrep 14(1):121–155.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10843-016-0177-9 Google Scholar
  49. European Commission (2010) Internationalization of European SMEs. Report, Entrepreneurship Unit, Brussels. http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/policies/sme/market-access/files/internationalisation_of_european_smes_final_en.pdf+&cd=1&hl=it&ct=clnk&gl=it. Accessed 15 Aug 2015
  50. Fini R, Grimaldi R, Marzocchi GL, Sobrero M (2012) The determinants of corporate entrepreneurial intention within small and newly established firms. Entrep Theory Pract 36(2):387–414.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6520.2010.00411.x Google Scholar
  51. Hammarstedt M (2001) Immigrant self-employment in Sweden—its variation and some possible determinants. Entrep Reg Dev 13(2):147–161Google Scholar
  52. Hart DM, Acs ZJ (2011) High-tech immigrant entrepreneurship in the United States. Econ Dev Quart 25(2):116–119.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0891242410394336 Google Scholar
  53. Hofstede G, Noorderhaven NG, Thurik AR, Uhlaner LM, Wennekers ARM, Wildeman RE (2004) Culture. In: Brown TE, Ulijn J (eds) Innovation, entrepreneurship and culture. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, pp 162–203Google Scholar
  54. Hormiga E, Bolívar-Cruz A (2014) The relationship between the migration experience and risk perception: a factor in the decision to become an entrepreneur. Int Entrep Manag J 10(2):297–317.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11365-012-0220-9 Google Scholar
  55. IDOS (2013) Dossier Statistico Immigrazione 2013 – Rapporto UNAR. Rome, IDOSGoogle Scholar
  56. Ilhan-Nas T, Sahin K, Cilingir Z (2011) International ethnic entrepreneurship: antecedents, outcomes and environmental context. Int Bus Rev 20(6):614–626.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibusrev.2011.02.011 Google Scholar
  57. Jiang G, Kotabe M, Hamilton IIIRD, Winston Smith S (2016) Early internationalization and the role of immigration in new venture survival. Int Bus Rev 25(6):1285–1296.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibusrev.2016.04.001 Google Scholar
  58. Johanson J, Vahlne JE (1977) The internationalization process of the firm: a model of knowledge development on increasing foreign commitments. J Int Bus Stud 8(1):23–32.  https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490676 Google Scholar
  59. Johnson RE, Groff KW, Taing MU (2009) Nature of the interactions among organizational commitments: complementary, competitive or synergistic? Brit J Manag 20:431–447Google Scholar
  60. Jones MV, Casulli L (2014) International entrepreneurship: exploring the logic and the utility of individual experience through comparative reasoning approaches. Entrep Theory Pract 38(1):45–69.  https://doi.org/10.1111/etap.12060 Google Scholar
  61. Jones MV, Coviello N, Tang YK (2011) International entrepreneurship research (1989-2009): a domain ontology and thematic analysis. J Bus Vent 26(6):632–659.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusvent.2011.04.001 Google Scholar
  62. Kautonen T, van Gelderen M, Fink M (2015) Robustness of the theory of planned behavior in predicting entrepreneurial intentions and actions. Entrep Theory Pract 39(3):655–674.  https://doi.org/10.1111/etap.12056 Google Scholar
  63. Kerlinger FN, Lee HB (2000) Foundations of behavioral research. Harcourt College Publishers, Fort WorthGoogle Scholar
  64. Kloosterman RC (2010) Matching opportunities with resources: a framework for analysing (migrant) entrepreneurship from a mixed embeddedness perspective. Entrep Reg Dev 22(1):25–45Google Scholar
  65. Kloosterman RC, van der Leun JP, Rath J (1998) Across the border, economic opportunities, social capital and informal business activities of immigrants. J Ethnic Migrat Stud 24(2):249–268.  https://doi.org/10.1080/1369183X.1998.9976632 Google Scholar
  66. Kloosterman RC, Rusinovic K, Yeboah D (2016) Super-diverse migrants: similar trajectories? Ghanaian entrepreneurship in the Netherlands seen from a mixed embeddedness perspective. J Ethnic Migrat Stud 42(6):913–932.  https://doi.org/10.1080/1369183X.2015.1126091 Google Scholar
  67. Krueger NF (1993) The impact of prior entrepreneurial exposure on perceptions of new venture feasibility and desirability. Entrep Theory Pract 18(1):5–21Google Scholar
  68. Krueger NF (2000) The cognitive infrastructure of opportunity emergence. Entrep Theory Pract 24(3):5–23Google Scholar
  69. Krueger NF (2007) What lies beneath? The experiential essence of entrepreneurial thinking. Entrep Theory Pract 31(1):123–138.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6520.2007.00166.x Google Scholar
  70. Krueger NF, Reilly MD, Carsrud AL (2000) Competing models of entrepreneurial intentions. J Bus Vent 15(5-6):411–432.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0883-9026(98)00033-0 Google Scholar
  71. Kushnirovich N, Heilbrunn S, Davidovich L (2017) Diversity of entrepreneurial perceptions: immigrants vs. native population. European management review, online firstGoogle Scholar
  72. Leonidou LC (1995) Export stimulation research: review, evaluation and integration. Int Bus Rev 4(2):133–156.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0969-5931(95)00002-H Google Scholar
  73. Leonidou LC (2004) An analysis of the barriers hindering small business export development. J Small Bus Manag 42(3):279–302.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-627X.2004.00112.x Google Scholar
  74. Lim JS, Sharkey TW, Kim KI (1991) An empirical test of an export adoption mode. Manag Int Rev 31(1):51–62Google Scholar
  75. Lim DS, CH O, De Clercq D (2016) Engagement in entrepreneurship in emerging economies: interactive effects of individual-level factors and institutional conditions. Int Bus Rev 25(4):933–945.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibusrev.2015.12.001 Google Scholar
  76. Madsen TK, Servais P (1997) The internationalization of born globals: an evolutionary process? Int Bus Rev 6(6):561–583.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0969-5931(97)00032-2 Google Scholar
  77. Manolova TS, Brush CV, Edelman LF, Greene PG (2002) Internationalization of small firms: personal factors revisited. Int Small Bus J 20(1):9–31.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0266242602201003 Google Scholar
  78. Marschan-Piekkari R, Welch C (2006) Reflections on using qualitative research methods in international business. Liiketaloudellinen Aikakauskirja 4:565–574Google Scholar
  79. Martineau C, Pastoriza D (2016) International involvement of established SMEs: a systematic review of antecedents, outcomes and moderators. Int Bus Rev 25(2):458–470.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibusrev.2015.07.005 Google Scholar
  80. McDougall PP (1989) International versus domestic entrepreneurship: new venture strategic behavior and industry structure. J Bus Vent 4(6):387–400.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0883-9026(89)90009-8 Google Scholar
  81. McDougall PP, Oviatt BM, Shrader RC (2003) A comparison of international and domestic new ventures. J Int Entrep 1(1):59–82.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1023246622972 Google Scholar
  82. McMullen JS, Shepherd DA (2006) Entrepreneurial action and the role of uncertainty in the theory of the entrepreneur. Acad Manag Rev 31(1):132–152.  https://doi.org/10.5465/AMR.2006.19379628 Google Scholar
  83. Minniti M, Bygrave W (2001) A dynamic model of entrepreneurial learning. Entrep Theory Pract 25(3):5–16Google Scholar
  84. Mohr A, Shoobridge GE (2011) The role of multi-ethnic workforces in the internationalisation of SMEs. J Small Bus Enterp Dev 18(4):748–763Google Scholar
  85. Morgan NA, Kaleka A, Katsikeas CS (2004) Antecedents of export venture performance: a theoretical model and empirical assessment. J Market 68(1):90–108.  https://doi.org/10.1509/jmkg.68.1.90.24028 Google Scholar
  86. Morris MH, Kuratko DF, Schindehutte M, Spivak AJ (2012) Framing the entrepreneurial experience. Entrep Theory Pract 36(1):11–40.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6520.2011.00471.x Google Scholar
  87. Mustafa M, Chen S (2010) The strength of family networks in transnational immigrant entrepreneurship. Thunderbird Int Bus Rev 52(2):97–106Google Scholar
  88. Muzychenko O (2008) Cross-cultural entrepreneurial competence in identifying international business opportunities. Europ Manag J 26(6):366–377.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.emj.2008.09.002 Google Scholar
  89. Neville F, Orser B, Riding A, Jung O (2014) Do young firms owned by recent immigrants outperform other young firms? J Bus Vent 29(1):55–71.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusvent.2012.10.005 Google Scholar
  90. Odorici V, Presutti M (2013) The entrepreneurial experience and strategic orientation of high-tech born global start-ups: an analysis of novice and habitual entrepreneurs. J Int Entrep 11(3):268–291.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10843-013-0112-2 Google Scholar
  91. OECD (2011) International migration outlook: SOPEMI 2011. OECD Publishing, Paris.  https://doi.org/10.1787/migr_outlook-2011-en Google Scholar
  92. Oviatt BM, McDougall PP (2005) Defining international entrepreneurship and modeling the speed of internationalization. Entrep Theory Practice 29:537–553Google Scholar
  93. Podsakoff PM, MacKenzie S, Lee JY, Podsakoff NP (2003) Common method biases in behavioral research: a critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. J App Psych 88(5):879–903.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.88.5.879 Google Scholar
  94. Politis D (2008) Does prior start-up experience matter for entrepreneurs' learning? A comparison between novice and habitual entrepreneurs. J Small Bus Enterpr Dev 15(3):472–489Google Scholar
  95. Portes A, Rembaut RG (2006) Immigrant America: a portrait. University of California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  96. Portes A, Guarnizo LE, Haller WJ (2002) Transnational entrepreneurs: an alternative form of immigrant economic adaptation. Amer Sociol Rev 67(2):278–298.  https://doi.org/10.2307/3088896 Google Scholar
  97. Preece SB, Miles G, Baetz MC (1998) Explaining the international intensity and global diversity of early-stage technology-based firms. J Bus Vent 14(3):259–281Google Scholar
  98. Ram M, Hillin G (1994) Achieving “break-out”: developing mainstream ethnic minority business. Small Bus Enterpr Dev 1(1):15–21Google Scholar
  99. Regione Emilia Romagna (2013) Immigrazione (L’) straniera in Emilia-Romagna. Edizione 2013. Bologna, Osservatorio regionale sul fenomeno migratorioGoogle Scholar
  100. Reid SD (1981) The decision-maker and export entry and expansion. J Int Bus Stud 12(2):101–111.  https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490581 Google Scholar
  101. Reuber RA, Fischer E (1997) The influence of the management team’s international experience on the internationalization behaviors of SMEs. J Int Bus Stud 28(4):807–825.  https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490120 Google Scholar
  102. Rusinovic K (2008) Transnational embeddedness: transnational activities and networks among first- and second-generation immigrant entrepreneurs in the Netherlands. J Ethnic Migrat Stud 34(3):431–451.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13691830701880285 Google Scholar
  103. Ruzzier M, Hisrich RD, Antoncic B (2006) SME internationalization research: past, present, and future. J Small Bus Enterpr Dev 13(4):476–497Google Scholar
  104. Sánchez JI, Fernández DM (1993) Acculturative stress among Hispanics: a bidimensional model of ethnic identification. J App Soc Psych 23(8):654–668.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.1993.tb01107.x Google Scholar
  105. Saxenian AL (2002) Silicon Valley’s new immigrant high-growth entrepreneurs. Econ Dev Quart 16(1):20–31.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0891242402016001003 Google Scholar
  106. Schiller NG, Basch L, Blanc-Szanton C (1992) Transnationalism: a new analytic framework for understanding migration. Ann New York Acad Sci 645(1):1–24.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1992.tb33484.x Google Scholar
  107. Schlaegel C, Koenig M (2014) Determinants of entrepreneurial intent: a meta-analytic test and integration of competing models. Entrep Theory Pract 38(2):291–332.  https://doi.org/10.1111/etap.12087 Google Scholar
  108. Schnatterly K (2003) Increasing firm value through detection and prevention of white-collar crime. Strat Manag J 24(7):587–614.  https://doi.org/10.1002/smj.330 Google Scholar
  109. Shane S (2000) Prior knowledge and the discovery of entrepreneurial opportunities. Org Sci 11(4):448–469.  https://doi.org/10.1287/orsc.11.4.448.14602 Google Scholar
  110. Shapero A (1982) Social dimensions of entrepreneurship. In: Kent C, Sexton D, Vesper K (eds) Encyclopedia of entrepreneurship. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, pp 72–90Google Scholar
  111. Sharkey TW, Lim JS, Kim KI (1989) Export development and perceived export barriers: an empirical analysis of small firms. Manag Int Rev 29(2):33–40Google Scholar
  112. Shaver K, Scott L (1992) Person, process, and choice: the psychology of new venture creation. Entrep Theory Pract 16:23–45Google Scholar
  113. Shepherd DA, Williams TA, Patzelt H (2015) Thinking about entrepreneurial decision making review and research agenda. J Manag 41(1):11–46Google Scholar
  114. Smallbone D, Ram M, Deakins D, Baldlock R (2003) Access to finance by ethnic minority in the UK. Int Small Bus J 21(3):291–315.  https://doi.org/10.1177/02662426030213003 Google Scholar
  115. Solano G (2014) Multifocal business practices: the case of Moroccan import/export businesses in Milan. In: Bernhard I (ed) Geography of growth. University of West, Trollhättan, pp 747–766Google Scholar
  116. Sommer L, Haug M (2011) Intention as a cognitive antecedent to international entrepreneurship—understanding the moderating roles of knowledge and experience. Int Entrep Manag J 7(1):111–142.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11365-010-0162-z Google Scholar
  117. Stevenson HH, Jarillo JC (1990) A paradigm of entrepreneurship: entrepreneurial management. Strat Manag J 11:17–27Google Scholar
  118. Sui S, Morgan HM, Baum M (2015) Internationalization of immigrant-owned SMEs: the role of language. J World Bus 50(4):804–814.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jwb.2015.04.002 Google Scholar
  119. Sundararajan M, Sundararajan B (2015) Immigrant capital and entrepreneurial opportunities. Entrep Bus Econ Rev 3(3):29–50Google Scholar
  120. Tan A, Brewer P, Liesch PW (2007) Before the first export decision: internationalization readiness in the pre-export phase. Int Bus Rev 16(3):294–309.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibusrev.2007.01.001 Google Scholar
  121. Terjesen S, Elam A (2009) Transnational entrepreneurs' venture internationalization strategies: a practice theory approach. Entrep Theory Pract 33(5):1093–1120.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6520.2009.00336.x Google Scholar
  122. The Economist (2008). Special report: migration. Retrieved from http://www.economist.com/printedition/2008-01-05. January 5
  123. Tumasjan A, Welpe I, Spörrle M (2013) Easy now, desirable later: the moderating role of temporal distance in opportunity evaluation and exploitation. Entrep Theory Pract 37(4):859–888.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6520.2012.00514.x Google Scholar
  124. U.S. Department of Commerce (2015) A basic guide to exporting. 11th ed. Washington, U.S. Department of Commerce. http://export.gov/basicguide/?utm_source=hero&utm_medium=exportgov%20&utm_campaign=basicguide. Accessed 23 Sep 2015
  125. Ucbasaran D, Westhead P, Wright M (2009) The extent and nature of opportunity identification by experienced entrepreneurs. J Bus Vent 24(2):99–115.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusvent.2008.01.008 Google Scholar
  126. Vandor P, Franke N (2016) See Paris and… found a business? The impact of cross-cultural experience on opportunity recognition capabilities. J Bus Vent 31(4):388–407.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusvent.2016.03.003 Google Scholar
  127. Waldinger R, Aldrich H, Ward R (1990) Ethnic entrepreneurs: immigrant business in industrial societies. Sage Publications, Newbury ParkGoogle Scholar
  128. Wang Q, Liu CY (2015) Transnational activities of immigrant-owned firms and their performances in the USA. Small Bus Econ 44(2):345–359.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11187-014-9595-z Google Scholar
  129. Westhead P, Wright M, Ucbasaran D (2001) The internationalization of new and small firms: a resource-based view. J Bus Vent 16(4):333–358.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0883-9026(99)00063-4 Google Scholar
  130. Wiedersheim-Paul F, Welch L, Olson HC (1978) Pre-export activity: the first step in internationalization. J Man Stud, October: 333–345Google Scholar
  131. Wright M, Westhead P, Ucbasaran D (2007) Internationalization of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and international entrepreneurship: a critique and policy implications. Reg Stud 41(7):1013–1030.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00343400601120288 Google Scholar
  132. Zahra SA, Garvis DM (2000) International corporate entrepreneurship: the moderating effect of international environmental hostility. J Bus Vent 15(5-6):469–492.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0883-9026(99)00036-1 Google Scholar
  133. Zahra S, George G (2002) International entrepreneurship: the current status of the field and future research agenda. In: Hitt MA, Ireland RD, Camp SM, Sexton DL (eds) Strategic entrepreneurship: creating a new mindset. Blackwell Publishers, Oxford, pp 255–288Google Scholar
  134. Zahra SA, Ireland RD, Hitt MA (2000) International expansion by new venture firms: international diversity, mode of market entry, technological learning and performance. Acad Manag J 43(5):925–950.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1556420 Google Scholar
  135. Zahra SA, Korri JS, Yu J (2005) Cognition and international entrepreneurship: implications for research on international opportunity recognition and exploitation. Int Bus Rev 14(2):129–146.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibusrev.2004.04.005 Google Scholar
  136. Zhao H, Seibert SE, Hills GE (2005) The mediating role of self-efficacy in the development of entrepreneurial intentions. J App Psychol 90(6):1265–1272.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.90.6.1265 Google Scholar
  137. Zhou M (2004) Revisiting ethnic entrepreneurship: convergences, controversies, and conceptual advancements. Int Migrat Rev 38(3):1040–1074Google Scholar
  138. Zou S, Stan S (1998) The determinants of export performance: a review of the empirical literature between 1987 and 1997. Int Mark Rev 15(5):333–356.  https://doi.org/10.1108/02651339810236290 Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Economics and Business Management SciencesCatholic University of the Sacred HeartMilanItaly
  2. 2.Department of ManagementUniversity of BolognaBolognaItaly

Personalised recommendations