Journal of Insect Conservation

, Volume 22, Issue 5–6, pp 757–769 | Cite as

Comparative study of spatial patterns and ecological niches of beetles in two Malaysian mountains elevation gradients

  • Muneeb M. MusthafaEmail author
  • Fauziah Abdullah
  • Uriel Jeshua Sánchez-Reyes


The study of beetle communities is a valuable approach for biogeographical and conservation studies because their species and ecological diversities are very high, and they take different roles in ecosystems. However, beetle macroecology and conservation studies are disproportionately scarce, especially in tropical Asia. The objective of this study is to compare beetle abundance, diversity and species richness along the elevation gradients in two mountains in Peninsular Malaysia. Three passive sampling methods were utilized for beetle sampling with four marked elevation gradients: 500 m, 1000 m, 1500 m and 1800 m. Species richness in Fraser’s Hill was higher at highest elevation, but this value was not-significantly different from these in other elevations, except for the site at 1000 m with significantly lower estimates. Genting Highlands showed a significant decrease in species richness with the increase in elevation, without differences between the higher elevation sites. Pairwise comparison of species richness, Simpson Dominance and Shannon diversity between same elevation sites of Fraser’s Hill and Genting Highlands were all significantly different. The levels of vertical and horizontal colonization have had comparatively different weights in terms of their effect on the pattern of diversity and the integration of the beetle community in these two localities. At Fraser’s Hill, similar conditions at different elevations drives different responses, whereas at Genting Highlands contrasting and different environmental conditions at each elevation, drives different responses. We suggest the potential use of these results for biodiversity conservation in terms of climate variables in accordance with niche patterns.


Beetle Biodiversity Composition Conservation Elevation Niche Habitat 



Authors would like to thank Prof. Jesús Gómez-Zurita (Institute of Evolutionary Biology, Spain), Prof. Frederic Guichard (McGill University, Canada) and Dr. Jani Heino ​(Finnish Environment Institute, Finland) for their extended revision of the manuscript. This study was financed by Vot RP004E/13SUS and PG059/2014B. We would like to thank Mohd Shukri Mohd DSabri and Davindram A/L Rajendram for their kind help. Thanks are due to Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia for logistics and accommodation, and the Forestry Department is acknowledged for making available forest rangers into the forest trails.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this article.

Supplementary material

10841_2018_99_MOESM1_ESM.docx (59 kb)
Online Appendix (DOCX 58 KB)


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Biological Science, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  2. 2.B513, Toxicology Lab, Institute of Postgraduate StudiesUniversity MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  3. 3.Center of Biotechnology in AgricultureUniversity MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  4. 4.Center of Tropical BiodiversityUniversity MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  5. 5.Tecnológico Nacional de México-Instituto Tecnológico de Ciudad VictoriaCiudad VictoriaMexico

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