Journal of Electroceramics

, Volume 41, Issue 1–4, pp 43–49 | Cite as

Low temperature sintering of lead–free (Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-SrTiO3-BiFeO3 piezoelectric ceramics by adding excess CuO

  • Chang-Heon Lee
  • Hyoung-Su Han
  • Seong Hyun Kim
  • Thi Hinh Dinh
  • Chang Won Ahn
  • Jae-Shin LeeEmail author


This study examined the microstructures, crystal structures, and electrical properties of 0.01 mol CuO–added (1–x)(Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3xSrTiO3–2BiFeO3 (BNST100x–2BF, x = 0.20 ~ 0.28) ceramics synthesized at two different sintering temperatures. The sintering temperature of the BNST100x–2BF ceramics could be decreased from 1175 °C to 1000 °C by adding a 0.01 mol CuO excess. Low–temperature sintering led to a decrease in average grain size. The dielectrics, polarization hysteresis (PE), switching current, and electric–field induced strain (SE) curves changed with increasing SrTiO3 content and decreasing sintering temperature. Interestingly, the highest reduction ratio of d33* was calculated to be somewhere in between the high–temperature sintered and low–temperature sintered BNST26–2BF ceramics. These results were attributed to the difference in the stabilized relaxor state and closely related to the electric field–induced reversible phase transition from the relaxor and ferroelectrics.


Lead-free Piezoelectrics Low temperature sintering Relaxor 



This study was supported financially by the 2016 Research Fund of University of Ulsan.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Materials Science and EngineeringUniversity of UlsanUlsanRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Department of Physics and EHSRCUniversity of UlsanUlsanRepublic of Korea

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