Journal of Child and Family Studies

, Volume 28, Issue 10, pp 2826–2841 | Cite as

A Model of Parenting Risk and Resilience, Social-Emotional Readiness, and Reading Achievement in Kindergarten Children from Low-Income Families Model

  • Sondra Smith-AdcockEmail author
  • Walter Leite
  • Yasmine Kaya
  • Ellen Amatea
Original Paper



Parents’ early school involvement is central to successful school transition. However, results of parenting programs aimed at improving kindergarten transition for children from disadvantaged backgrounds are inconclusive and the achievement gap is increasing. Using a family resilience model, we examine relationships between a set of parenting resilience and risk factors, Kindergarteners’ social-emotional readiness, and reading achievement in a sample of families with low-incomes using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten (ECLS-K 1998-99) dataset.


Using Structural Equation Modeling, we estimated direct and indirect relationships between parenting processes and children’s social-emotional readiness and reading achievement. Parenting factors were latent variables in our model, and included parenting stress, discipline practices, family rules, parent-school involvement, home involvement, and cultural involvement. Mediating variables were indicators of social-emotional readiness including, approaches to learning, self-control, interpersonal skills, externalizing, and internalizing problem behaviors.


School involvement and approaches to learning directly influenced kindergarten reading achievement. Parenting stress was negatively related to reading achievement through approaches to learning. Parent-school involvement was positively related to achievement through approaches to learning and negatively through self-control. Approaches to learning partially mediated the relationship between parent-school involvement and reading outcomes, and fully mediated the relationship between parenting stress and reading outcomes.


Kindergarten children’s approaches to learning (attention, persistence, organization, and flexibility) may be a helpful focus of intervention for Kindergarten transition. For families with low SES, interventions that target parenting stress, approaches to learning, and reading achievement should be of particular concern for educators.


Parenting stress Parent school involvement Social-emotional school readiness Poverty Kindergarten 



S.S.A., W.L. and E.A. received an internal seed grant, College Research Incentive Fund (CRIF), to fund this study.

Author Contributions

S.S.A. designed and executed the study, consulted on data analysis, and wrote the paper. W.L. analyzed the data and wrote the results. W.L. and S.S.A. collaborated in the writing and editing of the final manuscript. Y.K. analyzed the data and collaborated with W.L. on writing the results. E.A. designed and executed the study in its early phases, and helped with the writing the paper.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.

IRB Approval

Because we analyzed a National Center for Educational Statistics secondary dataset, this study was considered exempt from review by the authors’ institutional human subjects review board.

Supplementary material

10826_2019_1462_MOESM1_ESM.docx (151 kb)
Supplementary Information.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sondra Smith-Adcock
    • 1
    Email author
  • Walter Leite
    • 1
  • Yasmine Kaya
    • 2
  • Ellen Amatea
    • 1
  1. 1.The School of Human Development and Organizational Studies in EducationUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA
  2. 2.Department of Educational ScienceAtaturk UniversityErzurumTurkey

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