Advertisement

Psychometric Evaluation of a Brief Assessment of Parents’ Disciplinary Alternatives

  • Christina M. RodriguezEmail author
  • Shannon M. O. Wittig
  • Maria-Ernestina Christl
Original Paper
  • 43 Downloads

Abstract

Objectives

The majority of strategies designed to assess parental discipline practices typically focus on ineffective or adverse discipline options. When more comprehensive measures are utilized, parents are often expressly asked to report their use of nonphysical discipline options but such an approach signals to parents that they should report implementing such choices, thereby rendering it susceptible to social desirability.

Methods

Rather than cueing parents with possible discipline options, the Production of Discipline Alternatives (PDA) is a very brief parent-report coding scheme of the discipline options parents freely generate to an open-ended question after reading a short vignette. The current study investigated the inter-rater reliability and stability as well as concurrent and predictive validity from the coding of this brief qualitative prompt using three waves of longitudinal data collected from mothers and fathers (prenatally, child age 6 months, and child age 18 months).

Results

Findings demonstrated strong inter-rater reliability (between independent coders) and stability of discipline alternatives provided by parents across nearly two years. Concurrent and predictive validity were also observed; specifically, mothers and fathers who generated proportionally more physical discipline options were more likely to approve of physical discipline, to be inclined to punish perceived misbehavior, to prefer authoritarian parenting approaches, to evidence greater child abuse risk, and to report more frequent use of physical discipline.

Conclusions

The current findings imply the PDA may have research utility as well as potential value in screenings at primary and integrated care settings relevant for prevention and intervention efforts.

Keywords

Discipline tactics Primary care screening Child abuse prevention Physical punishment Nonviolent discipline Corporal Punishment 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank our participating families and participating Obstetrics/Gynecology clinics that facilitated recruitment. This research was supported by award number R15HD071431 from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development or the National Institutes of Health.

Author Contributions

CR designed the procedure, analyzed the data, and led the writing of the paper; SMOW and MC jointly coded the data and contributed to writing the methods and results.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the Institutional Review Board of the University of Alabama at Birmingham and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

References

  1. Alampay, L. P., Godwin, J., Lansford, J. E., Bombi, A. S., Bornstein, M. H., & Bacchini, D. (2017). Severity and justness do not moderate the relation between corporal punishment and negative child outcomes: a multicultural and longitudinal study. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 41, 491–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ateah, C. (2003). Disciplinary practices with children: parental sources of information, attitudes, and educational needs. Issues in Comprehensive Pediatric Nursing, 26, 89–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ateah, C. A., & Durrant, J. E. (2005). Maternal use of physical punishment in response to child misbehavior: implications for child abuse prevention. Child Abuse & Neglect, 29, 169–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bavolek, S. J., & Keene, R. G. (2001). Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory (AAPI-2): Administration and development handbook. Park City: Family Development Resources, Inc.Google Scholar
  5. Boppana, S., & Rodriguez, C. M. (2017). Mediators between parenting history and expected at-risk parenting: role of conformity, coping, and attitudes. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 26, 3237–3245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bower-Russa, M., Knutson, J. F., & Winebarger, A. (2001). Disciplinary history, adult disciplinary attitudes, and risk for abusive parenting. Journal of Community Psychology, 29, 219–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Buri, J. R. (1991). Parental authority questionnaire. Journal of Personality and Social Assessment, 57, 110–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Canadian Paediatric Association. (2004). Effective discipline for children. Paediatric Child Health, 9, 37–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chan, K. L. (2012). Evaluating the risk of child abuse: the Child Abuse Risk Assessment Scale (CARAS). Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 27, 951–973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chartier, M. J., Brownell, M. D., Isaac, M. R., Chateau, D., Nickel, N. C., Katz, A., & Taylor, C. (2017). Is the Families First home visiting program effective in reducing child maltreatment and improving child development? Child Maltreatment, 22, 121–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chavis, A., Hudnut-Beumler, J., Webb, M. W., Neely, J. A., Bickman, L., Dietrich, M. S., & Scholer, S. J. (2013). A brief intervention affects parents’ attitudes toward using less physical punishment. Child Abuse & Neglect, 37, 1192–1201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cheah, C. S. L., Leung, C. Y. Y., Tahseen, M., & Schultz, D. (2009). Authoritative parenting among immigrant Chinese mothers of preschoolers. Journal of Family Psychology, 23, 311–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chung, E. K., Mathew, L., Rothkopf, A. C., Coyne, I. T., James, C., & Culhane, J. F. (2009). Parenting attitudes and infant spanking: the influence of childhood experiences. Pediatrics, 124, e278–e286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Conners, N. A., Whiteside-Mansell, L., Deere, D., Ledet, T., & Edwards, M. C. (2006). Measuring the potential for child maltreatment: the reliability and validity of the Adult Adolescent Parenting Inventory-2. Child Abuse & Neglect, 30, 39–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Durrant, J. E., Plateau, D. P., Ateah, C., Stewart-Tufescu, A., Jones, A., Ly, G., & Peters, R. D. (2014). Preventing punitive violence: preliminary data on the Positive Discipline in Everyday Parenting (PDEP) program. Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health, 33, 109–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Eckenrode, J., Campa, M. I., Morris, P. A., Henderson, Jr, C. R., Bolger, K. E., Kitzman, H., & Olds, D. L. (2017). The prevention of child maltreatment through the Nurse Family Partnership Program: mediating effects in a long-term follow-up study. Child Maltreatment, 22, 92–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ellison, C. G. (1996). Conservative Protestantism and the corporal punishment of children: clarifying the issues. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 35, 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Feigelman, S., Dubowitz, H., Lane, W., Prescott, L., Meyer, W., Tracy, J. K., & Kim, J. (2009). Screening for harsh punishment in a pediatric primary care clinic. Child Abuse & Neglect, 33, 269–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Flouri, E., Midouhas, E., Joshi, H., & Tzavidis, N. (2015). Emotional and behavioural resilience to multiple risk exposure in early life: the role of parenting. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 24, 745–755.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gershoff, E. T., & Grogan-Kaylor, A. (2016). Spanking and child outcomes: old controversies and new meta-analyses. Journal of Family Psychology, 30, 453–469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gershoff, E. T., Sattler, K. M. P., & Ansari, A. (2018). Strengthening causal estimates for links between spanking and children’s externalizing behavior problems. Psychological Science, 29, 110–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Giles-Sims, J., & Lockhart, C. (2005). Culturally shaped patterns of disciplining children. Journal of Family Issues, 26, 196–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Haskett, M. E., Johnson, C. A., & Miller, J. W. (1994). Individual differences in risk of child abuse by adolescent mothers: assessment in the perinatal period. Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 35, 461–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Haskett, M. E., Scott, S. S., & Fann, K. D. (1995). Child Abuse Potential Inventory and parenting behavior: relationships with high-risk correlates. Child Abuse & Neglect, 19, 1483–1495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Haskett, M. E., Scott, S. S., Willoughby, M., Ahern, L., & Nears, K. (2006). The Parent Opinion Questionnaire and child vignettes for use with abusive parents: assessment of psychometric properties. Journal of Family Violence, 21, 137–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Holden, G. W., Coleman, S., & Schmidt, K. (1995). Why 3-year-old children get spanked: parent and child determinants as reported by college-educated mothers. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 41, 431–452.Google Scholar
  27. Howard, B. J. (1996). Advising parents on discipline: what works. Pediatrics, 98, 809–815.Google Scholar
  28. Jackson, S., Thompson, R. A., Christiansen, E. H., Colman, R. A., Wyatt, J., Buckendahl, C. W., & Person, R. (1999). Predicting abuse-prone parental attitudes and discipline practices in a nationally representative sample. Child Abuse & Neglect, 23, 15–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kennedy, S. C., Kim, J. S., Tripodi, S. J., Brown, S. M., & Gowdy, G. (2016). Does parent-child interaction therapy reduce future physical abuse? A meta-analysis. Research on Social Work Practice, 26, 147–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kind, M. R. (2005). Parenting education in a public high school system. A primary prevention program. Journal of Psychohistory, 32, 344–362.Google Scholar
  31. Lansford, J. E., & Dodge, K. A. (2008). Cultural norms for adult corporal punishment of children and societal rates of endorsement and use of violence. Parenting: Science and Practice, 8, 257–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Locke, L. M., & Prinz, R. J. (2002). Measurement of parental discipline and nurturance. Clinical Psychology Review, 22, 895–929.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Luster, T., & Youatt, J. (1989). The effects of pre-parenthood education on high school students. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University.Google Scholar
  34. Margolin, G., Gordis, E. B., Medina, A. M., & Oliver, P. H. (2003). The co-occurrence of husband-to-wife aggression, family-of-origin aggression, and child abuse potential in a community sample. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 18, 413–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Milner, J. S. (1986). The Child Abuse Potential Inventory: Manual. 2nd edn. Webster: Psyctec.Google Scholar
  36. Milner, J. S. (1994). Assessing physical child abuse risk: the Child Abuse Potential Inventory. Clinical Psychology Review, 14, 547–583.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. O’Dor, S. L., Grasso, D. J., Forbes, D., Bates, J. E., McCarthy, K. J., Wakschlag, L. S., & Briggs-Gowan, M. J. (2017). The Family Socialization Interview-Revised (FSI-R): a comprehensive assessment of parental disciplinary behaviors. Prevention Science, 18, 292–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Palusci, V. J., Crum, P., Bliss, R., & Bavolek, S. J. (2008). Changes in parenting attitudes and knowledge among inmates and other at-risk populations after a family nurturing program. Children and Youth Services Review, 30, 79–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Plotkin, R. (1983). Cognitive mediation in disciplinary actions among mothers who have abused or neglected their children: Dispositional and environmental factors. University of Rochester, NY.Google Scholar
  40. Poole, M. K., Seal, D. W., & Taylor, C. A. (2014). A systematic review of universal campaigns targeting child physical abuse prevention. Health Education Research, 29, 388–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Porter, B., & Howe, T. (2008). Pilot evaluation of the ‘ACT Parents Raising Safe Kids’ violence prevention program. Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma, 1, 193–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Portney, L. G., & Watkins, M. P. (2009). Foundations of clinical research: Applications to practice.. Upper Saddle River: Pearson & Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  43. Querido, J. G., Warner, T. D., & Eyberg, S. M. (2002). Parenting styles and child behavior in African American families of preschool children. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 31, 272–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Radey, M., & Randolph, K. A. (2009). Parenting sources: How do parents differ in their efforts to learn about parenting? Family Relations: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies, 58, 536–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Rodriguez, C. M. (2003). Parental discipline and abuse potential effects on child depression, anxiety, and attributions. Journal of Marriage and Family, 65, 809–817.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Rodriguez, C. M. (2010). Parent-child aggression: association with child abuse potential and parenting styles. Violence and Victims, 25, 728–741.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Rodriguez, C. M. (2016). Parental discipline reactions to child noncompliance and compliance: association with parent-child aggression indicators. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 25, 1363–1374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Rodriguez, C. M., Bower-Russa, M., & Harmon, N. (2011). Assessing abuse risk beyond self-report: analog task of acceptability of parent-child aggression. Child Abuse & Neglect, 35, 199–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Rodriguez, C. M., & Eden, A. (2008). Disciplinary style and child abuse: association with indicators of positive functioning in children with behavior problems. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 39, 123–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Rodriguez, C. M., Smith, T. L., & Silvia, P. J. (2016a). Multimethod prediction of physical parent–child aggression risk in expectant mothers and fathers with Social Information Processing theory. Child Abuse & Neglect, 51, 106–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Rodriguez, C. M., Smith, T. L., & Silvia, P. J. (2016b). Parent–Child aggression risk in expectant mothers and fathers: a multimethod theoretical approach. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 25, 3220–3235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Rodriguez, C. M., Silvia, P. J., & Gaskin, R. E. (2017). Predicting maternal and paternal parent-child aggression risk: Longitudinal multimethod investigation using Social Information Processing theory. Psychology of Violence.  https://doi.org/10.1037/vio0000115.
  53. Rodriguez, C. M., & Sutherland, D. (1999). Predictors of parents’ physical disciplinary choices. Child Abuse & Neglect, 23, 651–657.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Russell, B. S., & Lincoln, C. R. (2017). Reducing hostile parenting through computer-mediated parenting education. Children and Youth Services Review, 73, 66–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Scarr, S., Pinkerton, R., & Eisenberg, M. (1994). Parental discipline interview manual. Charlottesville: University of Virginia.Google Scholar
  56. Smith, A. E., Hudnut-Beumler, J., & Scholar, S. J. (2017). Can discipline education be culturally sensitive? Maternal and Child Health Journal, 21, 177–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Straus, M. A., Hamby, S. L., Finkelhor, D., Moore, D. W., & Runyan, D. (1998). Identification of child maltreatment with the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales: development and psychometric data for a national sample of American parents. Child Abuse & Neglect, 22, 249–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Sturge-Apple, M. L., Rogge, R. D., Peltz, J. S., Suor, J. H., & Skibo, M. A. (2015). Delving beyond conscious attitudes: validation of an innovative tool for assessing parental implicit attitudes toward physical punishment. Infant and Child Development, 24, 240–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Taylor, C. A., Manganello, J. A., Lee, S. J., & Rice, J. C. (2010). Mothers’ spanking of 3-year-old children and subsequent risk of children’s aggressive behavior. Pediatrics, 125, e1057–e1065.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Taylor, C. A., McKasson, S., Hoy, G., & DeJong, W. (2017). Parents’ primary professional sources of parenting advice moderate predictors of parental attitudes toward corporal punishment. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 26, 652–663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Taylor, C. A., Moeller, W., Hamvas, L., & Rice, J. C. (2013). Parents’ professional sources of advice regarding child discipline and their use of corporal punishment. Clinical Pediatrics, 52, 147–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Tucker, M. C., Rodriguez, C. M., & Baker, L. R. (2017). Personal and couple level risk factors: maternal and paternal parent-child aggression risk. Child Abuse & Neglect, 69, 213–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Zulauf, C. A., Sokolovsky, A. W., Grabell, A. S., & Olson, S. L. (2018). Early risk pathways to physical versus relational peer aggression: The interplay of externalizing behavior and corporal punishment varies by child sex. Aggressive Behavior.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ab.21744.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Alabama at BirminghamBirminghamUSA
  2. 2.University of DenverDenverUSA

Personalised recommendations