Journal of Child and Family Studies

, Volume 28, Issue 2, pp 577–586 | Cite as

Parental Support in Taiwan that Promotes Children’s Physical Activity

  • Yi-Ching Lin
  • Kaiping Grace Yao
  • Duan-Rung Chen
  • Chun-Chieh WangEmail author
Original Paper


In Taiwan, children’s physical activity (PA) levels have been declining, which leads to a higher risk for chronic disease in adulthood. Children’s PA habits are formed within environmental and social contexts in which parents play a fundamental role. Most studies that evaluate parental factors are Western and use single or unidimensional measures. There are few Asian studies, especially of young children, on this topic. Hence, we developed a culturally sensitive and multidimensional scale to determine how parents in Taiwan can effectively promote children’s PA. We based our scale on the Activity Support Scale (ACTS) and processed it using a World Health Organization (WHO) protocol. We recruited 428 parents of school-aged children and used exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to test its content validity. We then distributed the verified scale to a new group of 615 parents for criteria-related validation using multivariate logistic regression. We finally developed a multidimensional scale comprised of three major factors of parental support for children’s PA: (1) modeling, (2) logistic support—the first two are based on the ACTS—and (3) parental regulation, a newly found factor. This scale provides a culturally sensitive measure of parental influence on children’s physical activity.


Child health Modeling Parental regulation Physical activity Activity Support Scale 



The current study was initiated and analyzed by the authors. The author, Yi-Ching, Lin, has received research grants from the Ministry of Science and Technology, R.O.C., with grant No. 104-2410-H-002-147.

Author Contributions

YCL conceptualized, designed, and executed the study and wrote the paper. KGY helped design the structure of study and methodology. DRC helped with methodology and reviewed the final manuscript. CCW executed the study by collecting and analyzing the data, writing part of the results, and collaborating in the writing and editing of the paper.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH) Research Ethics Committee (REC) and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Informed Consent

All participants were informed of the study purpose and their rights as study participants before committing to the study. A written informed consent form was provided to all participants along with the survey. Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Early Childhood and Family EducationNational Taipei University of EducationTaipeiTaiwan
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyNational Taiwan UniversityTaipeiTaiwan
  3. 3.Institute of Health Behaviors and Community SciencesNational Taiwan UniversityTaipeiTaiwan
  4. 4.Department of Recreation and Leisure Industry ManagementNational Taiwan Sport UniversityTaoyuanTaiwan

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