Advertisement

Poly-victimization among Secondary High School Students in Saudi Arabia

  • Majid A. Al-EissaEmail author
  • Hassan N. Saleheen
  • Maha Almuneef
  • Saja Al-Sulaiman
  • Fadia S. AlBuhairan
Original Paper

Abstract

Poly-victimization can occur during childhood resulting in adverse events on health and well–being. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of past year as well as lifetime prevalence of poly-victimization among adolescents in Saudi Arabia (SA). A cross-sectional study was conducted in the five main provinces of SA. Boys and girls (n = 16,010) from public and private secondary high schools were selected to participate in the study. Nearly three-quarters (72%) experienced poly-victimizations during their lives and two third (66%) during the past year. Participants living with extended family, and living with a biologic and step-parent were 1.3 and 1.9 times respectively more likely to be poly-victimized during their lives and were 1.2 and 1.7 times respectively during the past year. Public policy should be established that encourages social workers and child protection services to screen for poly-victimization in cases of suspected adolescent maltreatment.

Keywords

Poly-victimization ISPCAN ICAST-CH Step-parent Adolescents Saudi Arabia 

Notes

Author Contributions

M.A.E.: Principal Investigator of the ICAST study and contributed to the design and preparation of the article. H.S.: Carried out the analysis of the data, and brought the sections on the results. S.A.: Prepared and wrote the literature review. F.A.: Contributed to the discussion section, over saw the production of the data, and helped to conceptualize the article. M.A.: Prepared aspects of the discussion and the literature review.

Funding

This study was funded by King Abdullah International Medical Research Center (KAIMRC) with research protocol number: RR11/008.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Al-Eissa, M. A., Saleheen, H. N., Almadani, S., Albuhairan, F. S., Weber, A., Fluke, J. D., Almuneef, M., & Casillas, K. L. (2016). Determining prevalence of maltreatment among children in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Child: Care, Health and Development, 42(4), 565–571.Google Scholar
  2. Al-Moosa, A., Al-Shaiji, J., Al-Fadhli, A., Al-Bayed, K., & Adib, S. (2003). Pediatricians’ knowledge, attitudes and experience regarding child maltreatment in Kuwait. Child Abuse & Neglect, 27(10), 1161–1178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Almuneef, M., Hollinshead, D., Saleheen, H., Almadani, S., Derkash, B., Albuhairan, F., Al-Eissa, M., & Fluke, J. (2016). Adverse childhood experiences and association with health, mental health, and risky behavior in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Child Abuse & Neglect, 60, 10–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arata, C., Langhinrichsen-Rohling, J., Bowers, D., & O’Brien, N. (2007). Differential correlates of multi-type maltreatment among urban youth. Child Abuse & Neglect, 31(4), 393–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chan, K. (2013). Victimization and poly-victimization among school-aged Chinese adolescents: prevalence and associations with health. Preventive Medicine, 56(3-4), 207–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Choo, W., Dunne, M., Marret, M., Fleming, M., & Wong, Y. (2011). Victimization experiences of adolescents in Malaysia. Journal Of Adolescent Health, 49(6), 627–634.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cuevas, C., Finkelhor, D., Turner, H., & Ormrod, R. (2007). Juvenile delinquency and victimization. Journal Of Interpersonal Violence, 22(12), 1581–1602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cyr, K., Chamberland, C., Clément, M., Lessard, G., Wemmers, J., Collin-Vézina, D., Gagne, M., & Damant, D. (2013). Poly-victimization and victimization of children and youth: results from a population survey. Child Abuse & Neglect, 37(10), 814–820.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dong, M., Anda, R. F., Felitti, V. J., Dube, S. R., Williamson, D. F., Thompson, T. J., Loo, C. M., & Giles, W. H. (2004). The interrelatedness of multiple forms of childhood abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction. Child Abuse and Neglect, 28(7), 771–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dong, F., Cao, F., Cheng, P., Cui, N., & Li, Y. (2013). Prevalence and associated factors of poly-victimization in Chinese adolescents. Scandinavian Journal Of Psychology, 54(5), 415–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Feng, J., Chang, Y., Chang, H., Fetzer, S., & Wang, J. (2015). Prevalence of different forms of child maltreatment among Taiwanese adolescents: a population-based study. Child Abuse & Neglect, 42, 10–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Finkelhor, D., Ormrod, R., Turner, H., & Hamby, S. (2005). Measuring poly-victimization using the juvenile victimization questionnaire. Child Abuse & Neglect, 29(11), 1297–1312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Finkelhor, D., Ormrod, R., & Turner, H. (2007). Poly-victimization: a neglected component in child victimization. Child Abuse & Neglect, 31(1), 7–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Finkelhor, D., Turner, H., Ormrod, R., & Hamby, S. (2009). Violence, abuse, and crime exposure in a national sample of children and youth. Pediatrics, 124(5), 1411–1423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Finkelhor, D., Turner, H., Hamby, S., & Ormrod, R. (2011). Poly-victimization: Children’s Exposure To Multiple Types Of Violence, Crime, And Abuse. Children’s Exposure to Violence: a Comprehensive National Survey. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.Google Scholar
  16. Ford, J., Elhai, J., Connor, D., & Frueh, B. (2010). Poly-victimization and risk of post-traumatic, depressive, and substance use disorders and involvement in delinquency in a national sample of adolescents. Journal Of Adolescent Health, 46(6), 545–552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Forns, M., Kirchner, T., Gómez-Maqueo, E. L., Landgrave, P., Soler, L., & Magallón-Neri, E. (2014). The ability of multi-type maltreatment and poly-victimization approaches to reflect pyschopathological impairment of victimization in Spanish community adolescents. Journal of Child & Adolescent Behavior, 3(2), 187.Google Scholar
  18. General Authority for Statistics Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. (2016). Statistical yearbook of 2016. http://www.cdsi.gov.sa/en/4. Accessed 10 Jan 2017.
  19. Higgins, D., & McCabe, M. (2000). Relationships between different types of maltreatment during childhood and adjustment in adulthood. Child Maltreatment, 5(3), 261–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect ICAST-CH study tool. (n.d). http://www.ISPCAN.org/?page=ICAST. Accessed 21 January 2017 http://www.ISPCAN.org/?page=ICAST.
  21. Kaminer, D., du Plessis, B., Hardy, A., & Benjamin, A. (2013). Exposure to violence across multiple sites among young South African adolescents. Peace And Conflict: Journal Of Peace Psychology, 19(2), 112–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Krug, E., Dahlberg, L., Mercy, J., Zwi, A., & Lozano, R. (2002). World report on violence and health. World Health Organization. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/42495/1/9241545615_eng.pdf. Accessed 10 Jan 2017.
  23. Le, M., Holton, S., Nguyen, H., Wolfe, R., & Fisher, J. (2015). Poly-victimization among Vietnamese high school students: prevalence and demographic correlates. PLoS One, 10(5), e0125189  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125189.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Le, M., Holton, S., Romero, L., & Fisher, J. (2016). Poly-victimization among children and adolescents in low- and lower-middle-income countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 19(3), 323–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Nguyen, H. T., Dunne, M., & Vu Le, A. (2009). Multiple types of child maltreatment and adolescent mental health in Viet Nam. Bulletin Of The World Health Organization, 88(1), 22–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Pilnik, L., & Kendall, J. (2012). Identifying poly-victimization and trauma among court-involved children and youth: a checklist and resource guide for attorneys and other court-appointed advocates. https://www.ojjdp.gov/programs/safestart/IdentifyingPolyvictimization.pdf. Accessed 10 Jan 2017.
  27. Radford, L., Corral, S., Bradley, C., & Fisher, H. (2013). The prevalence and impact of child maltreatment and other types of victimization in the UK: findings from a population survey of caregivers, children and young people and young adults. Child Abuse & Neglect, 37(10), 801–813.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Saunders, B. (2003). Understanding children exposed to violence. Journal Of Interpersonal Violence, 18(4), 356–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Soler, L., Forns, M., Kirchner, T., & Segura, A. (2015). Relationship between particular areas of victimization and mental health in the context of multiple victimizations in Spanish adolescents. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 24(4), 417–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. IBM SPSS (Version SPSS 20.0 for Windows). (2013). Chicago, IL: IBM Corp.Google Scholar
  31. Stevens, T. N., Ruggiero, K. J., Kilpatrick, D. G., Resnick, H. S., & Suanders, B. E. (2005). Variables differentiating singly and multiply victimized youth: results from the National Survey of Adolescents and Implications for Secondary Prevention. Child Maltreatment, 10(3), 211–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Turner, H., Finkelhor, D., & Ormrod, R. (2006). The effect of lifetime victimization on the mental health of children and adolescents. Social Science & Medicine, 62(1), 13–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Turner, H., Finkelhor, D., & Ormrod, R. (2010). Poly-victimization in a National Sample of Children and Youth. American Journal Of Preventive Medicine, 38(3), 323–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Tyler, K., & Cauce, A. (2002). Perpetrators of early physical and sexual abuse among homeless and runaway adolescents. Child Abuse & Neglect, 26(12), 1261–1274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Van IJzendoorn, M., Euser, E., Prinzie, P., Juffer, F., & Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. (2009). Elevated risk of child maltreatment in families with stepparents but not with adoptive parents. Child Maltreatment, 14(4), 369–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Zolotor, A., Runyan, D., Dunne, M., Jain, D., Péturs, H., Ramirez, C., Volvoka, E., Deb, S., Lidchi, V., Muhammad, T., & Isaeva, O. (2009). ISPCAN child abuse screening tool children’s version (ICAST-C): instrument development and multi-national pilot testing. Child Abuse & Neglect, 33(11), 833–841.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.King Abdullah International Medical Research CenterKing Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health SciencesRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  2. 2.National Family Safety ProgramKing Abdulaziz Medical City - Ministry of National Guard Health AffairsRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  3. 3.Department of PediatricsKing Abdullah Specialized Children’s HospitalRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  4. 4.King Saud bin Abdulaziz for Health Sciences (KSAU-HS)College of MedicineRiyadhSaudi Arabia

Personalised recommendations