Poly-victimization among Secondary High School Students in Saudi Arabia
Poly-victimization can occur during childhood resulting in adverse events on health and well–being. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of past year as well as lifetime prevalence of poly-victimization among adolescents in Saudi Arabia (SA). A cross-sectional study was conducted in the five main provinces of SA. Boys and girls (n = 16,010) from public and private secondary high schools were selected to participate in the study. Nearly three-quarters (72%) experienced poly-victimizations during their lives and two third (66%) during the past year. Participants living with extended family, and living with a biologic and step-parent were 1.3 and 1.9 times respectively more likely to be poly-victimized during their lives and were 1.2 and 1.7 times respectively during the past year. Public policy should be established that encourages social workers and child protection services to screen for poly-victimization in cases of suspected adolescent maltreatment.
KeywordsPoly-victimization ISPCAN ICAST-CH Step-parent Adolescents Saudi Arabia
M.A.E.: Principal Investigator of the ICAST study and contributed to the design and preparation of the article. H.S.: Carried out the analysis of the data, and brought the sections on the results. S.A.: Prepared and wrote the literature review. F.A.: Contributed to the discussion section, over saw the production of the data, and helped to conceptualize the article. M.A.: Prepared aspects of the discussion and the literature review.
This study was funded by King Abdullah International Medical Research Center (KAIMRC) with research protocol number: RR11/008.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Al-Eissa, M. A., Saleheen, H. N., Almadani, S., Albuhairan, F. S., Weber, A., Fluke, J. D., Almuneef, M., & Casillas, K. L. (2016). Determining prevalence of maltreatment among children in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Child: Care, Health and Development, 42(4), 565–571.Google Scholar
- Almuneef, M., Hollinshead, D., Saleheen, H., Almadani, S., Derkash, B., Albuhairan, F., Al-Eissa, M., & Fluke, J. (2016). Adverse childhood experiences and association with health, mental health, and risky behavior in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Child Abuse & Neglect, 60, 10–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Finkelhor, D., Turner, H., Hamby, S., & Ormrod, R. (2011). Poly-victimization: Children’s Exposure To Multiple Types Of Violence, Crime, And Abuse. Children’s Exposure to Violence: a Comprehensive National Survey. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.Google Scholar
- Forns, M., Kirchner, T., Gómez-Maqueo, E. L., Landgrave, P., Soler, L., & Magallón-Neri, E. (2014). The ability of multi-type maltreatment and poly-victimization approaches to reflect pyschopathological impairment of victimization in Spanish community adolescents. Journal of Child & Adolescent Behavior, 3(2), 187.Google Scholar
- General Authority for Statistics Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. (2016). Statistical yearbook of 2016. http://www.cdsi.gov.sa/en/4. Accessed 10 Jan 2017.
- Krug, E., Dahlberg, L., Mercy, J., Zwi, A., & Lozano, R. (2002). World report on violence and health. World Health Organization. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/42495/1/9241545615_eng.pdf. Accessed 10 Jan 2017.
- Pilnik, L., & Kendall, J. (2012). Identifying poly-victimization and trauma among court-involved children and youth: a checklist and resource guide for attorneys and other court-appointed advocates. https://www.ojjdp.gov/programs/safestart/IdentifyingPolyvictimization.pdf. Accessed 10 Jan 2017.
- Radford, L., Corral, S., Bradley, C., & Fisher, H. (2013). The prevalence and impact of child maltreatment and other types of victimization in the UK: findings from a population survey of caregivers, children and young people and young adults. Child Abuse & Neglect, 37(10), 801–813.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- IBM SPSS (Version SPSS 20.0 for Windows). (2013). Chicago, IL: IBM Corp.Google Scholar
- Stevens, T. N., Ruggiero, K. J., Kilpatrick, D. G., Resnick, H. S., & Suanders, B. E. (2005). Variables differentiating singly and multiply victimized youth: results from the National Survey of Adolescents and Implications for Secondary Prevention. Child Maltreatment, 10(3), 211–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zolotor, A., Runyan, D., Dunne, M., Jain, D., Péturs, H., Ramirez, C., Volvoka, E., Deb, S., Lidchi, V., Muhammad, T., & Isaeva, O. (2009). ISPCAN child abuse screening tool children’s version (ICAST-C): instrument development and multi-national pilot testing. Child Abuse & Neglect, 33(11), 833–841.CrossRefGoogle Scholar