Journal of Child and Family Studies

, Volume 28, Issue 2, pp 387–400 | Cite as

Use of Parental Racial Socialization with African American Toddler Boys

  • Sheresa Boone BlanchardEmail author
  • Stephanie Irby Coard
  • Belinda J. Hardin
  • Mariana Mereoiu
Original Paper


In this qualitative pilot study, 12 self-identified African American parents (six mother-father dyads, ages 25-43) shared (via in-depth, in-person interviews) culturally relevant socialization beliefs, practices and goals for raising their toddler boys (ages 12–33 months). Transcript analysis focused on understanding the prevalence of and rationale for racial socialization (i.e., messages addressing the significance and meaning of race and ethnicity), the specific content of those messages, and the methods and modes by which parents use racial socialization and/or plan to use it with their toddler sons. Results indicated parents of toddlers engaged in common racial socialization tenets varyingly, including cultural socialization, preparation for bias, and egalitarianism. However, promotion of mistrust was a tenet not typically engaged in by parent participants. The importance of elucidating the culturally-influenced context of parenting (specifically, the engagement in racial socialization) for caregivers of this young age group are discussed.


African American parents Toddlers Boys Racial socialization Childrearing 


Author Contributions

S.B.B.: designed and executed the study, assisted with the data analyses, and wrote the paper, editing. S.I.C.: assisted with the data analyses, and wrote the paper, editing. B.J.H.: dissertation chair, overseeing study. M.M.: wrote the paper, editing.


No authors have financial relationships relevant to this article. Support for this work was provided by an Office of Special Education Programs Doctoral Preparation grant.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Aapproval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional (University of North Carolina at Greensboro) and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Supplementary material

10826_2018_1274_MOESM1_ESM.docx (23 kb)
Supplementary Information


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sheresa Boone Blanchard
    • 1
    Email author
  • Stephanie Irby Coard
    • 2
  • Belinda J. Hardin
    • 3
  • Mariana Mereoiu
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Human Development and Family ScienceEast Carolina UniversityGreenvilleUSA
  2. 2.Department of Human Development and Family StudiesUniversity of North Carolina at GreensboroGreensboroUSA
  3. 3.Department of Specialized Education ServicesUniversity of North Carolina at GreensboroGreensboroUSA
  4. 4.Department of Intervention ServicesBowling Green State UniversityBowling GreenUSA

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