Maternal Parenting Style and Internalizing and ADHD Symptoms in College Students
- 149 Downloads
The purpose of the current study was to test for a relation between emerging adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) status, how they reported being reared (i.e., perceived parenting style), and how the maternal parenting they received in childhood was linked with current adjustment. College students completed online surveys regarding their ADHD status, impairment, and maternal parenting style. Participants with ADHD reported higher levels of maternal authoritarian parenting (controlling/punitive) and lower levels of maternal authoritative parenting (structured/supportive) compared with participants without ADHD. Across the entire sample, higher reported maternal authoritative parenting was associated with lower levels of inattention (IA), hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI), depression, anxiety and stress, and higher levels of maternal authoritarian and permissive parenting was associated with higher levels of IA, HI, depression, anxiety, and stress. Sex moderated the relations between maternal parenting style and psychopathology such that women who reported low levels of authoritative parenting also reported higher levels of symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress, where no differences in psychopathology were found in men across both low and high levels of authoritative parenting. These links between current adjustment and maternal parenting style suggest authoritative parenting may protect against negative adjustment in college students and may be especially important for women.
KeywordsCollege students ADHD Parenting College adjustment Authoritative parenting
This study is based on the first author’s Master’s thesis, which has not been previously published in a peer-reviewed journal. A version of this paper appears in a collection of theses in the UNC Systems Libraries database.
AS designed and executed the study, analyzed the data, and wrote the paper. WC designed the study, assisted with data analysis, collaborated with writing the paper, and assisted with final edits of the paper. EL collaborated with the design, collaborated with data analysis, and assisted with paper edits. CH collaborated with the design, assisted with data analysis, assisted with paper edits and supervised data collection.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee at Appalachian State University and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 4th ed. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
- Barkley, R. A. (2011). Barkley Adult ADHD Rating Scale – IV (BAARS-IV). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Barkley, R. A., & Murphy, K. R. (2006). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A clinical workbook. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Barkley, R. A., Murphy, K. R., & Fischer, M. (2008). ADHD in adults: What the science says. New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/data.html.
- Chronis, A. M., Lahey, B. B., Pelham, W. E., Williams, S. H., Bauman, B. L., Kipp, H., & Rathouz, P. J. (2007). Maternal depression and early positive parenting predict future conduct problems in young children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Developmental Psychology, 43, 70–82. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1622.214.171.124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Deault, L. C. (2010). A systematic review of parenting in relation to the development of comorbidities and functional impairments in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 41, 168–192. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-009-0159-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- de Graaf, R., Kessler, R. C., Fayyad, J., ten Have, M., Alonso, J., Angermeyer, M., & Posada-Villa, J. (2008). The prevalence and effects of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on the performance of workers: Results from the WHO World Mental Health Survey Initiative. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 65, 835–842.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Fedele, D. A. (2008). Assessing the diagnostic utility of proposed adult ADHD symptoms in a young adult sample. Unpublished raw data.Google Scholar
- Gau, S. S.-F., & Chang, J. P.-C. (2013). Maternal parenting styles and mother-child relationship among adolescents with and without persistent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34, 1581–1594. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2013.02.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hartung, C. M., Lefler, E. K., Canu, W. H., Stevens, A. E., Jaconis, M., LaCount, P. A., …Willcutt, E. G. (2016). DSM-5 and other symptom thresholds for ADHD: Which is the best predictor of impairment in college students? Journal of Attention Disorders. https://doi.org/10.1177/1087054716629216.
- Harvey, E., Danforth, J. S., McKee, T. E., Ulaszek, W. R., & Friedman, J. L. (2003). Parenting of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): The role of parental ADHD symptomatology. Journal of Attention Disorders, 7, 31–42. https://doi.org/10.1177/108705470300700104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Johnston, C., Hommersen, P., & Seipp, C. M. (2009). Maternal attributions and child oppositional behavior: A longitudinal study of boys with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77, 189–195. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0014065.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Johnston, C., Williamson, D., Noyes, A., Steward, K., & Weiss, M. (2016). Parent and child ADHD symptoms in relation to parental attitudes and parenting: Testing the similarity-fit hypothesis. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2016.1169538.
- Kessler, R. C., Adler, L., Barkley, R., Biederman, J., Conners, C. K., Demler, O., & Zaslavsky, A. M. (2006). The prevalence and correlates of adult ADHD in the United States: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 716–723.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lamb, M. E., & Lewis, C. (2011). The role of parent-child relationships in child development. In M. H. Bornstein & M. E. Lamb (Eds.), Developmental science: An advanced textbook. 6th ed. New York, NY: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
- McKee, T. E., Harvey, E., Danforth, J. S., Ulaszek, W. R., & Friedman, J. L. (2004). The relation between parental coping styles and parent-child interactions before and after treatment for children with ADHD and oppositional disorder. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33, 158–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Meinzer, M. C., Hill, R. M., Petit, J. W., & Nichols-Lopez, K. A. (2015). Parental support partially accounts for the covariation between ADHD and depressive symptoms in college students. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 37, 247–255. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10862-014-9449-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mikami, A. Y., Calhoun, C. D., & Abikoff, H. B. (2010). Positive illusory bias and response to behavioral treatment among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 39, 373–385. https://doi.org/10.1080/15374411003691735.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Molina, M. F., & Musich, F. M. (2015). Perception of parenting style by children with ADHD and its relation with inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity and externalizing symptoms. Journal of Child and Family Studies. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10886-015-0316-2.
- Parent, J., Forehand, R., Merchant, M. J., Edwards, M. C., Conners-Burrow, N. A., Long, N., & Jones, D. J. (2011). The relation of harsh and permissive discipline with child disruptive behaviors: Does child gender make a difference in an at-risk sample? Journal of Family Violence, 26, 527–533. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10896-011-9388-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Pelham, W. E., & Lang, A. R. (1999). Can your children drive you to drink? Stress and parenting in adults interacting with children with ADHD. Alcohol Research and Health, 23, 292–298.Google Scholar
- Rogers, M. A., Wiener, J., Marton, I., & Tannock, R. (2009). Supportive and controlling parental involvement as predictors of children’s academic achievement: Relations to children’s ADHD symptoms and parenting stress. School Mental Health, 89, 89–102. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12310-009-9010-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Uji, M., Sakamoto, A., Adachi, K., & Kitamura, T. (2014). The impact of authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting styles on children’s later mental health in Japan: Focusing on parent and child gender. Journal of Child & Family Studies, 23, 293–302. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-013-9740-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Willcutt, E. G. (2015). Competing theoretical models of ADHD. In R. A. Barkley (Ed.), Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A clinical handbook. 3rd Ed. New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
- Yoshimasu, K., Barbaresi, W. J., Colligan, R. C., Voigt, R. G., Killian, J. M., Weaver, A. L., & Katusic, S. K. (2012). Childhood ADHD is strongly associated with a broad range of psychiatric disorders during adolescence: A population-based birth cohort study. The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53, 1036–1043. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-76.2012.02567.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar