Advertisement

Journal of Child and Family Studies

, Volume 28, Issue 1, pp 105–115 | Cite as

Technology-Assisted Adolescent Dating Violence and Abuse: A Factor Analysis of the Nature of Electronic Communication Technology Used Across Twelve Types of Abusive and Controlling Behaviour

  • Karlie E. StonardEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

Little is known about the nature of adolescents’ experiences of Technology-Assisted Adolescent Dating Violence and Abuse (TAADVA) behaviours and whether the Electronic Communication Technology (ECT) used varies depending on the behaviour. This paper therefore examines the nature of adolescents’ victimisation experience of 12 different TAADVA behaviours via nine methods of ECT (phone call, text, instant messenger, social networking site, picture message, video chat, email, chatroom and website/blog). Four-hundred-and-sixty-nine 12–18-year-old British adolescents (59% (n = 277) of which had dated in the last year) completed a questionnaire regarding their experience of TAADVA. Exploratory factor analysis was used to examine how adolescents experienced the 12 TAADVA behaviours and through which of the nine ECTs they were experienced. Adolescents’ experiences of TAADVA victimisation did not significantly vary in terms of the ECT method used and often multiple TAADVA behaviours were experienced in combination with one another across a range of ECTs, demonstrated by the identification of nine factors in the analysis. The findings highlight implications for understanding and raising awareness of the extent and intrusiveness of TAADVA, particularly when multiple abusive and controlling behaviours are experienced via multiple methods or devices. It is advised that assessing the overall construct of abusive and controlling behaviour is avoided in future research and instead, the multidimensionality of the factors identified in the analysis of the TAADVA assessment tool and the different behaviours that these factors encompass need to be considered.

Keywords

Adolescent(ce) Technology-Assisted Dating Violence and Abuse Electronic Communication Technology 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was conducted for a PhD thesis funded by a studentship in the Faculty of Health and Life Sciences at Coventry University. I would like to thank my PhD supervisory team, Professor Erica Bowen, Dr Tony Lawrence, Dr Shelley Price and Dr Kate Walker (Coventry University) for their support with the research reported in this paper and for reading and providing critical feedback on the original thesis chapter.

Author Contributions

K.E.S. designed and executed the study, conducted the data analyses and wrote the paper.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The author declare that he have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. Ethical clearance was granted from Coventry University’s Research Ethics Committee and these standards and guidelines were also followed.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Supplementary material

10826_2018_1255_MOESM1_ESM.docx (39 kb)
Supplementary Information

References

  1. Associated Press & MTV (2011). Associated Press-MTV Digital Abuse Survey August 2011. http://www.athinline.org/pdfs/2011-MTV-AP_Digital_Abuse_Study_Full.pdf.
  2. Baker, C. K., & Carreño, P. K. (2016). Understanding the role of technology in adolescent dating and dating violence. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 25, 308–320.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-015-0196-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barter, C., McCarry, M., Berridge, D., & Evans, K. (2009). Partner Exploitation and Violence in Teenage Intimate Relationships. London: NSPCC.Google Scholar
  4. Barter, C., Wood, M., Aghtaie, N., Larkins, C., Stanley, N., Apostolov, G., et al. (2015). Briefing Paper 2: Incidence rates and impact of experiencing interpersonal violence and abuse in young people’s relationships. Safeguarding teenage intimate relationships: connecting online and offline contexts and risks. Funded by DAPHNE III European Commission. http://stiritup.eu/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/STIR-Briefing-Paper-21.pdf.
  5. Bryant, J. A., Sanders-Jackson, A., & Smallwood, A. M. K. (2006). IMing, text messaging, and adolescent social networks. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 11, 577–592.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1083-6101.2006.00028.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bryman, A. (2004). Social Research Methods (2nd edn.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Understanding teen dating violence. http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pdf/teen-dating-violence-factsheet-a.pdf.
  8. Connolly, J., Craig, W., Goldberg, A., & Pepler, D. (2004). Mixed-gender groups, dating, and romantic relationships in early adolescence. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 14, 185–207.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-7795.2004.01402003.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Connolly, J., & McIsaac, C. (2011). Romantic relationships in adolescence. In K. M. Underwood & L. H. Rosen (Eds.), Social development: relationships in infancy, childhood and adolescence (pp. 180–220). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  10. Cutbush, S., Ashley, O. S., Kan., M. L., Hampton, J., & Hall, D. M. (2010). Electronic aggression among adolescent dating partners: demographic correlates and associations with other types of violence. Poster presented at the American Public Health Association annual meeting, November 6–10. Denver, CO. http://www.rti.org/pubs/apha10_cutbush_poster.pdf.
  11. Draucker, C. B., & Martsolf, D. S. (2010). The role of electronic communication technology in adolescent dating violence. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 23, 133–142.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6171.2010.00235.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Field, A. (2009). Discovering Statistics Using SPSS (3rd edn.). London: SAGE.Google Scholar
  13. Foshee, V. A. (1996). Gender differences in adolescent dating abuse prevalence, types and injuries. Health Education Research, 11, 275–286.  https://doi.org/10.1093/her/11.3.275-a.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fox, C. L., Corr, M. L., Gadd, D., & Butler, I. (2014). Young teenagers’ experiences of domestic abuse. Journal of Youth Studies, 17, 510–526.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13676261.2013.780125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hickman, L. J., Jaycox, L. H., & Aronoff, J. (2004). Dating violence among adolescents: prevalence, gender distribution, and prevention program effectiveness. Trauma, Violence and Abuse, 5, 123–142.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1524838003262332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hinduja, S., & Patchin, J. W. (2011). Electronic dating violence: a brief guide for educators and parents. Cyberbullying Research Center. http://www.cyberbullying.us/electronic_dating_violence_fact_sheet.pdf.
  17. Kaiser, H. F. (1974). An index of factorial simplicity. Psychometrika, 39, 31–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Korchmaros, J. D., Ybarra, M. L., Langhinrichsen-Rohling, J., Boyd, D., & Lenhart, A. (2013). Perpetration of teen dating violence in a networked society. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 16, 561–567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lucero, J. L., Weisz, A. N., Smith-Darden, J., & Lucero, S. M. (2014). Exploring gender differences: sinteractive technology use/abuse among dating teens. Affilia, 29, 478–491.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0886109914522627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ofcom. (2015). The Communications Market Report. https://www.ofcom.org.uk/__data/assets/pdf_file/0022/20668/cmr_uk_2015.pdf.
  21. Pence, E., & Paymar, M. (1993). Education groups for men who batter: the Duluth model. New York, NY: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Picard, P. (2007). Tech abuse in teen relationships.. Chicago, IL: Teen Research Unlimited.Google Scholar
  23. Ringrose, J., Gill, R., Livingstone, S., & Harvey, L. (2012). A qualitative study of children, young people and ‘Sexting’: a report prepared for the NSPCC. London: NSPCC.Google Scholar
  24. Ringrose, J., Harvey, L., Gill, R., & Livingstone, S. (2013). Teen girls, sexual double standards and `Sexting': gendered value in digital image exchange. Feminist Theory, 14, 305–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Sorensen, S. (2007). Adolescent romantic relationships. ACT for Youth Centre of Excellence. http://www.actforyouth.net/resources/rf/rf_romantic_0707.pdf.
  26. Stonard, K. E. (2018). The prevalence and overlap of technology-assisted and offline adolescent dating violence. Current Psychology. Google Scholar
  27. Stonard, K. E., Bowen, E., Lawrence, T. R., & Price, S. A. (2014). The relevance of technology to the nature, prevalence and impact of adolescent dating violence and abuse: A research synthesis. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 19, 390–417.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2014.06.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Stonard, K., Bowen, E., Walker, K., & Price, S. A. (2017). “They’ll Always Find a Way to Get to You”: Technology use in adolescent romantic relationships and its role in dating violence and abuse. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 32, 2083–2117.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260515590787.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Tompson, T., Benz, J., & Agiesta, J. (2013). The Digital Abuse Study: experiences of teens and young adults. AP-NORC Centre for Public Affairs Research. http://www.apnorc.org/PDFs/Digital%20Abuse/AP-NORC%20Center%20and%20MTV_Digital%20Abuse%20Study_FINAL.pdf.
  30. Wekerle, C., & Wolfe, D. A. (1999). Dating violence in mid-adolescence: theory, significance, and emerging prevention initiatives. Clinical Psychology Review, 19, 435–456.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0272-7358(98)00091-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. World Health Organization (2015). Adolescent development. http://www.who.int/maternal_child_adolescent/topics/adolescence/dev/en/.
  32. Zweig, J. M., Dank, M., Yahner, J., & Lachman, P. (2013). The rate of cyber dating abuse among teens and how it relates to other forms of teen dating violence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 42, 1063–1077.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-013-9922-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Social SciencesUniversity of WolverhamptonWolverhamptonUK

Personalised recommendations