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Journal of Child and Family Studies

, Volume 28, Issue 1, pp 84–90 | Cite as

Trauma Screening in Recently Immigrated Youth: Data from Two Spanish-Speaking Samples

  • Amanda C. VentaEmail author
  • Alfonso Mercado
Original Paper
  • 85 Downloads

Abstract

There have been large, recent increases in the number of children and families migrating from Central America to the U.S. to escape regional cartel and gang violence. The rate of trauma exposure in recently immigrated youth from Central America is therefore alarmingly high and current trauma symptom measures have not been evaluated for use in this population. The broad goal of this study was to report on the psychometric properties of one such measure in two studies of recently immigrated youth. Data collected included self-report of recent immigrants from Central America attending public high school in the Southwestern U.S. and caregiver-report from a sample of Central American immigrants who arrived in the U.S. within the last 24 hours and reported on trauma symptoms in their children. Aims included providing descriptive data and examining inter-item correlations and factor structure. Results indicated trauma symptoms far exceeding published cutoff levels as well as adequate internal consistency and inter-item correlations. Findings of the current studies suggest a pressing need for the assessment of trauma symptoms among recently immigrated youth from Central America, in which the rates of exposure and symptoms were striking.

Keywords

Trauma PTSD Immigrant Youth Spanish CPSS Hispanic Central America 

There was an estimated 131% increase in the rate of youth and families from Central America immigrating to the U.S. between 2015 and 2016 (United States Customs and Border Patrol 2016). This group of immigrants is highly affected by recent increases in regional violence and other forms of trauma exposure: Honduras reported the highest national homicide rate globally in 2012; 2013 marked the end of a truce between major gang powers in El Salvador; and crime victimization was cited as a major reason for Central American migration in 2014 (Hiskey et al. 2016; United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime 2013). These events have largely precipitated increases in trauma-related distress among recent waves of Hispanic immigrant youth and families, necessitating the evaluation of trauma screening measures for use in this population (United States Conference on Catholic Bishops 2014).

The Child PTSD Symptoms Scale (CPSS; Foa et al. 2001) is a widely used questionnaire-based measure of PTSD symptoms with both youth self-report and caregiver-report forms. Foa et al. (2001) initially evaluated the psychometric properties of this instrument using a sample of 75 children from California. Subsequent research translated the measure into Spanish (e.g., Kataoka et al. 2009) and reported on the use of the scale in Hispanic (Gudino and Rindlaub 2014) and immigrant (Jaycox et al. 2002) youth. Gudiño and Rindlaub (2014) were the first to conduct a full psychometric evaluation of the CPSS in Spanish—utilizing a sample of 161 Hispanic students in the U.S. Their results indicated high rates of PTSD symptoms (Mean = 12.11, SD = 9.56) with 52.8% of subjects meeting the clinical cutoff of 11 suggested by the measure’s original authors (i.e., Foa et al. 2001). Findings supported the internal consistency of the CPSS (alpha = .75); provided no evidence of a relation between CPSS and age; and indicated a significant gender effect, with females reporting higher symptoms. Convergent validity was supported via significant relations with violence exposure. Finally, results indicated that a three-factor structure best fit the CPSS data. While Gudiño and Rindlaub (2014) made large strides towards psychometric assessment of the Spanish CPSS, only 31 students in their sample completed the measure in Spanish. Kassam‐Adams et al. (2013) added to this literature base by utilizing the CPSS in 225 Spanish-speaking youth with recent trauma exposure and reporting adequate internal consistency (alpha = .88; interpreted according to .70 threshold Nunnally, 1978) and concurrent validity.

Several studies have also utilized the CPSS in immigrant samples. Jaycox et al. (2002), for instance, reported on the CPSS utilizing a large sample (N = 1004) of immigrant children of whom about half were from Spanish-speaking countries in Central or South America. Second, the CPSS was administered in Spanish to these children, though descriptive data were reported for the whole sample only. Overall, the total CPSS score was high (M = 9.56, SD = 8.14) with a significantly higher number of symptoms reported among girls. No psychometric data was reported. Third, in a sample of 229 young immigrants from Mexico and Central America, Kataoka et al. (2003) administered the child version of the CPSS as part of an intervention program and demonstrated adequate internal consistency (alpha = .89; interpreted according to .70 threshold from Nunnally, 1978). Results indicated that 90% of children exceeded the clinical cutoff (using score of 11) for PTSD. No other psychometric properties were reported. Finally, a shortened version of the CPSS was utilized in a sample of 30 unaccompanied migrant youth from Mexico and Central America and indicated that 56.7% of children exceeded the clinical cutoff (using a score of 14; Berger Cardoso, 2018). Evidence of strong internal consistency was reported (alpha = .95) though no other psychometric analyses were described. In sum, the current literature on the CPSS reveals psychometric promise as well as frequent use with Spanish-speaking and immigrant samples, however, existing studies have not reported descriptive data or psychometric properties in Spanish-speaking migrant samples. The latter is a critical need in light of the particularly high rates of migration of Central American youth currently as well as reports that this population is exposed to trauma and suffers from trauma-related symptoms at higher than average rates (United States Conference on Catholic Bishops 2014).

The broad aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a well-established trauma-screening tool for use with young, Spanish-speaking immigrants. Specifically, we sought to document the psychometric performance of this instrument with recently immigrated youth (and caregivers) from Central America. Further, this study sought to provide descriptive data to characterize the magnitude of trauma symptoms in Central American migrants. First, self-report from a sample of recent adolescent immigrants from Central America attending public high school in the Southwestern U.S. (i.e., Study 1) was analyzed. Specific aims included providing descriptive data for and examining the internal consistency and inter-item correlation of the CPSS. Second, caregiver-report data from a sample of Central American immigrants who arrived in the U.S. within the last 24 h and reported on trauma in their children (i.e., Study 2) was analyzed. Specific aims included providing descriptive data and examining internal consistency and inter-item correlations of the CPSS. The three-factor structure of the CPSS supported by Gudiño and Rindlaub (2014) was explored in both studies.

Method

Participants

Study 1

Data for this study represent the first wave of data-collection in an ongoing, longitudinal study (Venta, A., Bailey, C., Muñoz, C., Godinez, E., Colin, Y., Arreola, A., ... & Lawlace, S. (2018). Contribution of schools to mental health and resilience in recently immigrated youth. School psychology quarterly: the official journal of the Division of School Psychology, American Psychological Association). Participants were recruited from an alternative high school for recently immigrated adolescents in the Southwestern U.S. where the student body is predominantly Hispanic and report limited English proficiency, socioeconomic disadvantage, and serious academic difficulty. Most students have lived in the U.S. for less than two years. Inclusion criteria for this study included enrollment in grades 9-12 (which in the state of data collection includes adolescents up to 26 years of age) and consent/assent. All students at the school were invited to participate in the study; 118 returned signed informed consent provided by their legal guardian; of these, 19 did not provide their assent following an explanation of study procedures, 13 were immigrants from non-Central American countries, and 8 revoked consent. Thus, the present analyses included 78 recently immigrated adolescents from Central America ranging in age from 15-25 (i.e., Freshman – Senior). The average age of the youth was 19 (SD = 2). Participants self-reported demographics; 59.9% of participants were male, with the ethnic and racial breakdown as follows: 26.9% white, 6.4% black, 6.1% mixed race, and 61.5% marked “other” (e.g., indigenous) or chose not to answer. Regarding trauma exposure, the most commonly endorsed traumatic events in this sample included seeing someone in the community get slapped, punched or beat up (64%); experiencing a serious accident or injury (56%); experiencing a natural disaster (51%); and witnessing violence perpetrated against a family member (45%).

Study 2

Data for this study was collected from a larger study of recently immigrated families (Mercado, A., Venta, A., & Henderson, C. Trauma and cultural values in the health of recently immigrated families. Submitted). Data was collected in one sitting, from parents who voluntarily arrived at a humanitarian respite center for recently arrived immigrants (i.e., those who have spent less than 24 h within the borders of the United States) in the Rio Grande Valley of South Texas. This location is an entry point for many immigrants, documented and undocumented. The families were processed by immigration officials and released to a local bus station. The humanitarian respite center provides the recent immigrants with food, water, clothing, shoes, baby supplies, grooming supplies, showers, temporary housing, information regarding the bus system, emergency medical services, and legal consultation. Inclusion criteria for the parent participants included voluntary arrival at the respite center, age 18 + , and Spanish fluency. Parents were excluded from this study if they reported having previously lived in the U.S. For the purpose of simplicity, questionnaires focused on the eldest child travelling with the parent. All parents meeting these criteria were invited to participate. A total of N = 103 participants were included in this study. The average age of the participants was 32 (SD = 8). Participants self-reported demographics; 52.4% of participants were male and all participants were Hispanic with the following countries of origin 43% Honduras, 43% El Salvador, 13% Guatemala, and 2% Mexico. The children’s average age was 9.2. Approximately half (53%) of the children were male. Regarding trauma exposure, the most commonly reported events endorsed by parent-report included seeing someone in the community get slapped, punched or beat up (39%); experiencing a natural disaster (27%); witnessing violence perpetrated against a family member (25%); and experiencing a serious accident or injury (25%).

Procedure

Study 1

Institutional Review Board and School District approvals were sought prior to data collection. A Certificate of Confidentiality from the National Institutes of Health was also obtained. Informed consent from the adolescents’ caregivers was collected first; if a completed consent form was returned, assent from the adolescent was obtained in person. Adolescents were assessed in private by the lead author and/or bilingual, graduate student research assistants. Adolescents completed all measures with the assistance of a trained research assistant. Families were compensated $30 in a gift card for their time.

Study 2

Institutional Review Board and respite center approvals were sought prior to data collection. Informed consent from parents was sought in Spanish and, if granted, the following questionnaires were completed with a bilingual Clinical Psychologist. When needed, questionnaires were administered orally. All data was collected at one time point, in person, from parents through questionnaire-based measures administered in Spanish by the second author [AM]. Participants were compensated for their time and given a $20 gift card.

Measure

The Child PTSD Symptoms Scale

(CPSS; Foa et al. 2001) was used in Study 1 and Study 2 as a measure of trauma symptoms following trauma exposure. The measure contains seventeen symptoms of PTSD responded to on a frequency scale from 0 (Not at all) to 3 (5 or more times a week). Seven subsequent items probe impairment with regard to saying prayers, doing chores, friendships, hobbies, schoolwork, family relationships, and general happiness. The previously published clinical cutoff score for this measure is 11 (Foa et al. 2001). In Study 1, the CPSS was administered via self-report to adolescents. In Study 2, the CPSS was administered via caregiver-report to the guardians of children enrolled in the study. In both studies, the CPSS was completed in Spanish. Because the current studies were designed and begun prior to publication of DSM 5 the version of the CPSS utilized is based on DSM-IV-TR descriptions of PTSD.

Results

Descriptive Data

In the high school sample (Study 1) no evidence of a significant correlation between age and CPSS (r = .02, p = .855) was noted. Likewise, no evidence of a relation between gender and CPSS (t (72) = -1.24, p = .219) was noted. Finally, no evidence of a relation between home country and CPSS (F (4, 59) = 2.04, p = .102) was noted.

In the child-caregiver sample (Study 2) no evidence of a significant correlation between respondent age and CPSS (r = .18, p = .08) was noted. Likewise, no evidence of a relation between respondent gender and CPSS (t (93) = -1.35, p = .180) was noted. Finally, no evidence of a relation between home country and CPSS (F (3, 96) = .64, p = .594) was noted.

Descriptive data for the Spanish forms of the CPSS across Study 1 and Study 2 is provided in Table 1. Specifically, the average number of endorsed symptoms in the high school sample (Study 1) was high and approximately 60% of the sample exceeded the clinical cutoff score of 11 (Foa et al. 2001). Subscale scores were as follows: Re-experiencing M = 4.03, SD = 3.60; Avoidance M = 5.77, SD = 4.83; and Hyperarousal M = 5.74, SD = 3.07. In the child-caregiver sample (Study 2), the average number of endorsed symptoms was high and 60% of the sample exceeded the clinical cutoff score of 11 (Foa et al. 2001). Subscale scores were as follows: Re-experiencing M = 3.69, SD = 4.14; Avoidance M = 3.94, SD = 5.12; and Hyperarousal M = 4.67, SD = 4.52.
Table 1

Descriptive data for Study 1 and Study 2

  

Demographic data

CPSS psychometric properties

Study

Respondent

Age M (SD)

% Male

Home country

M (SD)

Range

Alpha

Inter-item correlation

Study 1

Adolescent

19 (2)

59.9%

45% Guatemala

15.54 (10.28)

0–45

.90

M = .34 (−12 to .66)

    

25% El Salvador

    
    

17% Honduras

    
    

6% Mexico

    
    

6% Other

    

Study 2

Caregiver

32 (8)

52.4%

43% Honduras

12.30 (13.01)

0–51

.95

M= .55 (.28 to .76)

    

43% El Salvador

    
    

13% Guatemala

    
    

2% Mexico

    

Internal Consistency

Internal consistency data is presented in Table 1. Cronbach’s alpha estimates for the CPSS across both samples were adequate (Study 1 = .90, Study 2 = .95; interpreted according to .70 threshold from Nunnally, 1978). In the adolescent sample, internal consistency by subscale was also largely adequate despite the small number of items on each scale, as follows: Re-experiencing .82 in 5 items; Avoidance .81 in 7 items; and Hyperarousal .62 in 5 items (interpreted according to .70 threshold from Nunnally, 1978). In the child-caregiver sample, internal consistency by subscale was also adequate, as follows: Re-experiencing .88; Avoidance .89; and Hyperarousal .88 (interpreted according to .70 threshold from Nunnally, 1978).

Inter-item Correlations

The average inter-item correlation as well as the range of correlation values, by scale, are presented in Table 1. Overall inter-item correlations across both samples were adequate (Study 1 = .34, Study 2 = .55; interpreted according to .15 threshold from Clark and Watson 1995). In the adolescent sample, inter-item correlations by subscale were adequate, as follows: Re-experiencing M = .48 (.30 to .60); Avoidance .37 (.19 to .65); and Hyperarousal M = .24 (−.11 to .53; interpreted according to .15 threshold from Clark and Watson 1995). In the child-caregiver sample, inter-item correlations by subscale were adequate, as follows: Re-experiencing M = .60 (.52 to .74); Avoidance .54 (.35 to .64); and Hyperarousal M = .60 (.53 to .67; interpreted according to .15 threshold from Clark and Watson 1995).

Principle Components Analyses

Due to limitations in sample size, the structure of the CPSS was investigated using Principle Components Analyses (PCA) in place of Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Three components were expected, based on Gudiño and Rindlaub (2014); Table 2. Data from both studies was subjected to PCA with oblique, promax rotation. In Study 1 (KMO Measure of Sampling Adequacy, Estimate = .85, Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity, Chi Square = 655.86, p < .001), the eigenvalue-greater-than-one rule was used to extract four components. Study 1 component correlations ranged between .15 and .60 and, together, accounted for 64.54% of the total variance. A cutoff score of 0.4 was used to analyze loadings according to convention, such that items with a loading greater than or equal to 0.4 on one component were retained on that component. Loadings are presented in Table 2. In Study 2 (KMO Measure of Sampling Adequacy, Estimate = .91, Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity, Chi Square = 1255.46, p < .001), two highly correlated (r= .74) components were extracted accounting for 64.29% of the total variance. Component loadings are presented in Table 2.
Table 2

CPSS rotated component loadings across Study 1 and Study 2

CPSS Item

Gudiño and Rindlaub 2014

Study 1

Study 2

Factor 1

Factor 2

Factor 3

Component 1

Component 2

Component 3

Component 4

Component 1

Component 2

Intrusive thoughts

x

  

0.547

   

0.939

 

Nightmares

x

   

0.547

  

0.563

 

Reexperiencing

x

  

0.458

   

0.842

 

Upset by reminders

x

  

0.728

   

0.773

 

Somatic symptoms

x

  

0.794

   

0.776

 

Avoid thoughts

 

x

 

0.92

   

0.909

 

Avoid people/places

 

x

   

0.741

 

0.537

 

Trouble recalling

 

x

    

0.625

0.641

 

Diminished interest

 

x

   

0.525

  

0.727

Detachment

 

x

   

0.972

  

0.908

Numbing

 

x

  

0.643

0.489

  

0.906

Shortened future

 

x

  

0.854

   

0.559

Sleep difficulties

  

x

 

0.451

 

0.459

 

0.534

Irritability/anger

  

x

 

0.654

   

0.793

Poor concentration

  

x

 

0.814

   

0.71

Hypervigilance

  

x

   

−0.763

 

0.71

Exaggerated startle

  

x

 

0.546

  

0.549

 

Discussion

The aim of this study was to report on the psychometric properties of the CPSS in two studies of recently immigrated youth. The current studies indicated high rates of PTSD symptoms on the CPSS with mean scores of 15.54 on high school student report (Study 1) and 12.3 on caregiver-child report (Study 2). These rates vastly exceed the mean reported by Jaycox et al. (2002) in a large sample of immigrant youth, suggesting that PTSD symptoms may be particularly prevalent in Central American immigrant youth. Further, the rate in high school students (Study 1) was comparable to the rate of symptoms (M= 16.93) observed in a small, recent sample of unaccompanied immigrant youth from Mexico and Central America (Berger Cardoso, 2018)—bolstering the notion that Central American youth may be particularly at risk. Further, the rate reported by Berger Cardoso (2018) and observed in Study 1 exceeds the caregiver-child report indicating that adolescents may be particularly at risk of PTSD following migration, perhaps due to an increased number of years in their home countries, the increased trauma exposure faced during unaccompanied migration, or both. From a categorical standpoint, in both of the current studies 60% of youth met Foa et al. (2001)’s cutoff for clinically significant symptoms. These findings are important in, first, providing empirical data bolstering qualitative reports that recent waves of Central American migrants are experiencing serious posttraumatic symptoms and, second, in suggesting that further psychometric work is needed to identify a relevant clinical cut-off score for the CPSS in this population. Indeed, the current study adds to existing research suggesting a higher cutoff score based on English version of the CPSS (Nixon et al. 2013).

Regarding psychometric performance, internal consistency for the CPSS (alpha = .90–.95) was high across adolescent-report and child-caregiver report echoing prior studies (e.g., Kassam‐Adams et al. 2013, Kataoka et al. 2003). Indeed, internal consistency estimates approached those published in initial validation studies (Foa et al. 2001). Further, subscale internal consistency for the CPSS was uniformly high, although the use of these scales is called into question by PCA results discussed below. Inter-item correlations in the current studies were also adequate. Lending psychometric support to the CPSS in the current studies, no evidence of significant relations with age or gender were noted. This finding is distinct from previous studies that have documented such an effect (Jaycox et al. 2002, girls have more symptoms) and suggests that the CPSS is adequate for trauma screening in Spanish-speaking, immigrant youth and families regardless of age and gender. The absence of relations with gender and age may also be a consequence of very high rates of trauma symptoms universally in these samples.

Exploratory PCA results did not replicate the three-factor structure documented by Gudiño and Rindlaub (2014) nor the single factor or four factor models of PTSD previously reported though these findings are considered preliminary due to the small sample sizes and exploratory methods used (Simms et al. 2002). Across Study 1 and Study 2, PCA results varied with four and two components extracted, respectively. Regarding caregiver-reported symptoms (Study 2), symptoms broadly clustered into re-experiencing and hyper-arousal with the avoidance symptoms split into these two components rather than forming a third component. These results were partially echoed in adolescent-report (Study 1), where some avoidance symptoms loaded onto the re-experiencing component, some loaded onto the hyper-arousal component, and some loaded onto a third component. In the adolescent-report sample (Study 1), a fourth component with few items emerged and seemed to have included poor functioning items. One such item—hypervigilance—loaded negatively onto this factor, suggesting a critical misunderstanding of this item’s intended meaning. Indeed, in Spanish, the item reads “has estado demasiado cuidadoso(a) y atento(a)” which reflects positively valenced concepts like being careful and attentive. This item may have performed particularly poorly in the school-based assessment context of Study 1, where attention and care are viewed as positive attributes, not symptoms of hypervigilance. Credibility is leant to this hypothesis by the fact that no such effect was noted in Study 2 (caregiver-report). It is also notable that sleep difficulties appeared to have particularly low loadings across Study 1 and Study 2 and, in Study 1, loaded onto the same component as hypervigilance. This component may therefore reflect spurious relations between items that were inconsistently interpreted or minimally reflective of trauma symptoms in the unique cultural context of these studies. After excluding this possibly spurious component, the three remaining components from Study 1 were broadly reminiscent of the hypothesized three-factor structure, but with avoidance items loading onto the other two factors.

Inconsistencies between Study 1 and Study 2 as well as between the current studies and prior research may be attributable to three unique aspects of the current studies that require future research. First, the current studies assessed the structure of the CPSS in Spanish-speakers, whereas Gudiño and Rindlaub (2014) assessed psychometric performance in a mixed-language sample. Indeed, prior research comparing English- and Spanish-speaking young adults on questionnaire-based measures of PTSD noted that, despite broad measurement equivalence, there were notable psychometric differences based on the language of completion (Marshall 2004). The current study assessed the structure of youth PTSD symptoms in all Spanish-speaking samples and discrepancies from previous research suggest that factor analytic studies in larger samples are needed. Second, Study 2 assessed the CPSS caregiver-report format, which makes it distinct from prior research. Considering the results from Study 1, it appears that caregiver- and youth-report versions of the CPSS may perform inconsistently—a possibility warranting further exploration. Third, it is notable that the current studies report on PTSD symptoms in immigrant youth, rather than the children of immigrants as in Gudiño and Rindlaub (2014). Immigrants and their U.S. born children vary largely regarding acculturation and—further, most prior research has been conducted on people of Mexican origin rather than people who emigrate from Central America. Interestingly, prior research examining the PTSD symptom self-reports of Hispanic and white young adults indicates cultural measurement invariance regarding items assessing trouble recalling (Hoyt and Yeater 2010), one of the items that loaded heavily onto the possibly spurious fourth component in Study 1. The fact that the avoidance items performed unexpectedly in Study 1 and Study 2 is not unprecedented. Indeed, Hinton and Lewis-Ferńandez (2011) posited that while arousal and re-experiencing may be largely biologically driven—and therefore consistent across cultures—avoidance may reflect cultural differences to a greater extent. The latter certainly warrants future research in recently immigrated youth, based on the findings of the current studies.

Limitations

The current studies are important in providing new data on the measurement of trauma symptoms in hard-to-reach samples of high school and family migrants from Central America but are not without important limitations. First, the samples are small in size and therefore findings particularly regarding factor structure require replication in future research. Second, the samples, particularly the high school sample, are heterogeneous in country of origin, age, and background. Indeed, regarding age alone, the high school sample ranged between 15 and 25 years of age. While all participants were enrolled full-time in high school (reflecting laws in the state of data collection allowing high school placement until age 26), this age range spans important developmental stages and future research with larger samples should endeavor to assess measures separately in adolescents and young adults. Finally, the current studies were designed and begun prior to publication of a DSM 5 version of the CPSS and, thus, data collected is based on a somewhat outdated tool. While this is certainly a limitation of the current research, it is important to note that use of measures in languages other than English is consistently delayed because after publication, the measure must undergo, for example, psychometric evaluation in English, translation and preliminary evaluation in Spanish, and repeated psychometric evaluation in Spanish prior to being evaluated for unique populations like the ones included in this study. Indeed, mental healthcare providers will likely continue using the version of the CPSS used in this study for quite some time until the scientific process is complete and disseminated. Finally, the updated version of this tool is not markedly different from the one utilized in this study, suggesting that the findings of the current study can be used to bolster hypotheses for future research utilizing newer instruments. Indeed, documenting the staggering rates of trauma symptoms in these populations is critically important and warrants ample future research.

Taken together, the findings of the current studies suggest a pressing need for the assessment of trauma symptoms among recently immigrated youth from Central America, in which the rates of trauma symptoms are striking. The measure evaluated in the current studies, the CPSS, showed promise in this regard as evidenced by strong internal consistency and inter-item correlations. Further research, however, is needed to understand inconsistent results regarding the structure of PTSD symptoms in the unique samples reflected in the current research. In sum, the current study provides data documenting psychometric promise for a trauma symptom questionnaire in Spanish-speaking, recently immigrated youth (and their caregivers) from Central America, an important, albeit preliminary, contribution given that rate of trauma exposure in recently immigrated youth is therefore alarmingly high and current trauma symptom measures have not been evaluated for use in this population.

Notes

Author Contributions

AV: collaborated with the design and execution of both studies, conducted the data analyses, and wrote the paper. AM: collaborated with the design of study 2, executed data collection for study 2, and participated in editing of the final manuscript.

Funding

University of Texas System, Office of Global Engagement, Co-Is: Mercado & Venta. SHSU Center for Enhancing Undergraduate Research Experiences and Creative Activities, PI: Venta. SHSU Enhancement Research Grant, PI: Venta.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional review boards at Sam Houston State University and the University of Texas- Rio Grande Valley as well as with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Conflict of Interest

Author AV has received research grants from SHSU. Authors AV and AM have received a research grant from the UT System.

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychology & PhilosophySam Houston State UniversityHuntsvilleUSA
  2. 2.Department of Psychological ScienceUniversity of Texas- Rio Grande ValleyBrownsvilleUSA

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