Advertisement

Family Allocentrism and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms: The Role of Self-Identity Style

  • Jian-Bin Li
  • Elisa Delvecchio
  • Adriana Lis
  • Claudia Mazzeschi
Original Paper
  • 9 Downloads

Abstract

Recent research has found that a strong family allocentrism relates to reduced adolescent depressive symptoms. Besides providing continuous support for this relation, this research extended the scope by exploring whether there was a U-shaped association between family allocentrism and depressive symptoms and testing the mediation effect of identity style among Italian adolescents (N = 387, 183 boys, 204 girls, Mage = 16.38 years). Result of hierarchical regression model showed that the association between family allocentrism and depressive symptoms was linear rather than U-shaped. More importantly, this linear relation was mediated by normative and diffuse-avoidant style. In sum, the current findings suggest that adolescents who are allocentric toward family tend to follow family members’ expectations to establish self-identity and deal with identity issues more proactively, and thus they are less likely to experience depressive symptoms. Moreover, there is no significant evidence that too much family allocentrism would lead to elevated depressive symptoms.

Keywords

Family allocentrism Culture Connectedness Identity styles Depression 

Notes

Author Contributions

J.B.L. analyzed the data and wrote the major part of the manuscript. E.D. designed the project, collected the data, and wrote part of the manuscript. A.L. collaborated in writing and commenting on the manuscript. C.M. collaborated with the design and commented on the manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

Human participants were involved. The study was conducted in compliance with the Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki). Ethical approval was obtained from the Ethical Committee of the University of Padua.

Informed Consent

Singed consent was obtained from parents and participants provided their oral assent before participation.

References

  1. Berzonsky, M. D. (2004). Identity style, parental authority, and identity commitment. Journal of Youth Adolescence, 33, 213–220.  https://doi.org/10.1023/B:JOYO.0000025320.89778.29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Berzonsky, M. D. (2010). Cognitive processes and identity formation: The mediating role of processing style. Psychologia Rozwojowa, 15, s13–s17.Google Scholar
  3. Bhullar, N., Schutte, N. S., & Malouff, J. M. (2012). Association of individualistic-collectivistic orientations with emotional intelligence, mental health, and satisfaction with life: A tale of two countries. Individual Differences Research, 10(3), 165–175.Google Scholar
  4. Campbell, E., Adams, G. R., & Dobson, W. R. (1984). Familial correlates of identity formation in late adolescence: A study of the predictive utility of connectedness and individuality in family relations. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 13, 509–525.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02088596.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Carter, B., & McGoldrick, M. (1999). The expanded family life cycle: Individual, family, and social perspectives. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
  6. Crocetti, E., Rubini, M., Berzonsky, M. D., & Meeus, W. (2009). Brief report: The identity style inventory -Validation in Italian adolescents and college students. Journal of Adolescence, 32, 425–433.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2008.04.002.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Erikson, E. (1968). Identity, youth, and crisis. New York, NY: Norton.Google Scholar
  8. Grotevant, H. D., & Cooper, C. R. (1986). Individuation in family relationships: A perspective on individual differences in the development of identity and role-taking skill in adolescence. Human Development, 29, 82–100.  https://doi.org/10.1159/000273025.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hayes, A. F. (2009). Beyond Baron and Kenny: Statistical mediation analysis in the new millennium. Communication Monographs, 76, 408–420.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03637750903310360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ja, N. M., & Jose, P. E. (2017). “I can’t take hold of some kind of a life”: The role of social connectedness and confidence in engaging “lost” adolescents with their lives. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 46, 2028–2046.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-017-0656-x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Knyazev, G. G., Kuznetsova, V. B., Savostyanov, A. N., & Dorosheva, E. A. (2017). Does collectivism act as a protective factor for depression in Russia? Personality and Individual Differences, 108, 26–31.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.11.066.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kovacs, M. (1992). Children Depression Inventory (CDI) manual. Toronto, Canada: Multi-Health Systems.Google Scholar
  13. Lay, C., Fairlie, P., Jackson, S., Ricci, T., Eisenberg, J., Sato, T., & Melamud, A., et al. (1998). Domain-specific allocentrism-idiocentrism: A measure of family connectedness. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 29, 434–460.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022198293004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Li, J. B., Delvecchio, E., Lis, A., & Mazzeschi, C. (2018). Family allocentrism and its relation to adjustment among Chinese and Italian adolescents. Psychiatry Research.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2018.03.036.Google Scholar
  15. Li, J. B., Delvecchio, E., Lis, A., Nie, Y. G., & Di Riso, D. (2015). Parental attachment, self-control, and depressive symptoms in Chinese and Italian adolescents: Test of a mediation model. Jouranl of Adolescence, 43, 159–170.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2015.06.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Li, J. B., Lis, A., & Delvecchio, E. (2016). Familism and depressive symptoms among Italian adolescents: The mediating effect of parental attachment. Children and Youth Services Review, 71, 130–136.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2016.11.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Luyckx, K., Soenens, B., Berzonsky, M. D., Smits, I., Goossens, L., & Vansteenkiste, M. (2007). Information-oriented identity processing, identity consolidation, and well-being: The moderating role of autonomy, self-reflection, and self-rumination. Personality and Individual Differences, 43, 1099–1111.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2007.03.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Matheis, S., & Adams, G. R. (2004). Family climate and identity style during late adolescence. Identity: An International Journal of Theory and Research, 4, 77–95.  https://doi.org/10.1207/S1532706XID0401_5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Moshman, D. (2005). Adolescent psychological development: Rationality, morality, and identity. Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  20. Nurmi, J. E., Berzonsky, M. D., Tammi, K., & Kinney, A. (1997). Identity processing orientation, cognitive and behavioural strategies and well-being. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 21, 555–570.  https://doi.org/10.1080/016502597384785.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Pine, D. S., Cohen, E., Cohen, P., & Brook, J. (1999). Adolescent depressive symptoms as predictors of adult depression: moodiness or mood disorder? American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 133–135.  https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.156.1.133.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Rhee, E., Uleman, J. S., & Lee, H. K. (1996). Variations in collectivism and individualism by ingroup and culture: Confirmatory factor analyses. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 1037–1054.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.71.5.1037.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Salk, R. H., Hyde, J. S., & Abramson, L. Y. (2017). Gender differences in depression in representative national samples: Meta-analyses of diagnoses and symptoms. Psychological Bulletin, 143, 783–822.  https://doi.org/10.1037/bul0000102.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Santos, H. C., Varnum, M. E., & Grossmann, I. (2017). Global increases in individualism. Psychological Science, 28, 1228–1239.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797617700622.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Schotte, C. K., Van Den Bossche, B., De Doncker, D., Claes, S., & Cosyns, P. (2006). A biopsychosocial model as a guide for psychoeducation and treatment of depression. Depression and Anxiety, 23, 312–324.  https://doi.org/10.1002/da.20177.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Shaw, S. K., & Dallos, R. (2005). Attachment and adolescent depression: The impact of early attachment experiences. Attachment & Human Development, 7, 409–424.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14616730500365902.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Situ, Q. M., Li, J. B., & Dou, K. (2016). Reexamining the linear and U-shaped relationships between self-control and emotional and behavioural problems. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 19, 177–185.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ajsp.12118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Soenens, B., Berzonsky, M. D., Dunkel, C. S., Papini, D. R., & Vansteenkiste, M. (2011a). The role of parental dimensions and identification in late adolescents’ identity processing styles. Identity: An International Journal of Theory and Research, 11, 189–210.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15283488.2011.594781.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Soenens, B., Berzonsky, M. D., Dunkel, C. S., Papini, D. R., & Vansteenkiste, M. (2011b). Are all identity commitments created equally? The importance of motives for commitment for late adolescents’ personal adjustment. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 35, 358–369.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0165025411405954.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sowislo, J. F., & Orth, U. (2013). Does low self-esteem predict depression and anxiety? A meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Psychological Bulletin, 139, 213–240.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0028931.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Steinberg, L., & Silk, J. S. (2002). Parenting adolescents. In M. H. Bornstein (Ed.), 2nd Edn. Handbook of parenting, (Vol 1, pp. 103–133), Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.Google Scholar
  32. Saluja, G., Iachan, R., Scheidt, P. C., Overpeck, M. D., Sun, W., & Giedd, J. N. (2004). Prevalence of and risk factors for depressive symptoms among young adolescents. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 158, 760–765.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archpedi.158.8.760.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Thapar, A., Collishaw, S., Pine, D. S., & Thapar, A. K. (2012). Depression in adolescence. The Lancet, 379, 1056–1067.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60871-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Triandis, H. C. (2001). Individualism-collectivism and personality. Journal of Personality, 69, 907–924.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-6494.696169.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Zhang, J., Norvilitis, J. M., & Ingersoll, T. S. (2007). Idiocentrism, allocentrism, psychological well being and suicidal ideation: A cross cultural study. OMEGA-Journal of Death and Dying, 55, 131–144.  https://doi.org/10.2190/OM.55.2.c.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Early Childhood EducationThe Education University of Hong KongHong KongChina
  2. 2.Department of Philosophy, Social and Human Sciences and EducationUniversity of PerugiaPerugiaItaly
  3. 3.Department of Developmental Psychology and SocializationUniversity of PaduaPaduaItaly

Personalised recommendations