Parenting Behaviors, Neighborhood Quality, and Substance Use in 9th and 10th Grade Latino Males
Guided by family resilience perspectives, we used self-report questionnaire data from 379 Latino male 9th and 10th graders in California and North Carolina. We examined how reports of mothers’ and fathers’ parenting behaviors and neighborhood quality were associated with (a) the probability of non-substance use among participants in the last 6 months (n = 256 non-use, n = 123 use) and (b) the count of substance use events for those who used in the last 6 months (n = 123). Results indicated that fathers’ psychological control and neighborhood quality appeared to increase the probability of non-substance use, whereas mothers’ psychological control appeared to decrease the probability of non-substance use. For participants reporting substance use events (n = 123), results showed fathers’ monitoring, fathers’ psychological control (only with high neighborhood quality), and mothers’ punitiveness (particularly with low neighborhood quality) held potential to protect against more substance use events. Fathers’ punitiveness (particularly with high neighborhood quality), mothers’ psychological control (only in low neighborhood quality), and greater socioeconomic status increased the vulnerability to more substance use events for adolescent males with substance use in the past 6 months. These results underscore the need for future research regarding specific culturally-relevant mothers’ and fathers’ parental control behaviors within neighborhood contexts that protect Latino male 9th and 10th graders against substance use.
KeywordsLatino adolescent Substance use Parenting Control Neighborhood
This project was supported by Grant No. 2008-0433-02 awarded by the United States Department of Justice’s Office of Justice Programs. The opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department of Justice.
C.S.H.: Collaborated in the design of data collection. Collaborated on the conceptualization and analyses. Primary responsibility for the literature review; writing the introduction, method, discussion, and implications sections of the paper; and integrating across sections of the paper. M.Y.B.C.: Collaborated on the conceptualization, literature review, and writing of the paper. C.L.: Analyzed the data, wrote the results section, and contributed to the measurement section. S.W.P.: Principal investigator on the project, collected the California data, drafted section on the California participants and procedure sections, edited the manuscript. B.L.K.: Contributed the method section and contributed to the early analyses of the data and edited the manuscript. A.O.B.: Principal investigator on the overall project, collected the North Carolina data, drafted section on the North Carolina participants and procedure sections, edited the manuscript. I.J.W.: Conceptualized and supervised the data analysis and contributed to writing the analysis and results sections.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
The California portion of the study was approved by Institutional Review Board at California State University, Northridge. The North Carolina portion of the study was approved by the Institutional Review Board at North Carolina State University. All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments.
Informed consent from a parent or guardian for participants under 18 years of age and adolescent assent was obtained for all participants included in the study.
- Bámaca-Colbert, M. Y., Gonzales-Backen, M., Henry, C. S., Kim, P. S. Y., Roblyer, M. Z., Plunkett, S. W., & Sands, T. (2017). Family profiles of cohesion and parenting practices and Latino youth adjustment. Family Process. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1111/famp.12314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Barber, B. K., & Xia, M. (2013). The centrality of control to parenting and its effects. In: In R. E. Larzelere, A. S. Morris, A. W. Harrist, (eds.) Authoritative parenting: Synthesizing nurturance and discipline for optimal child development. (pp. 61–87). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bebee, L. A., Vesley, S. K., Oman, R. F., Tolma, E., Aspy, C. B., & Rodine, S. (2008). Protective assets for non-use of alcohol, tobacco and other drugs among urban Native American youth in Oklahoma. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 12, S82–S90. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10995-008-0325-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Byrnes, H. F., Chen, M. J., Miller, B. A., & Maguin, E. (2007). The relative importance of mothers’ and youths’ neighborhood perceptions for youth alcohol use and delinquency. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 36, 649–659. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-006-9154-2.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Child Trends (2015). Indicators of child and youth well being: Family structure. Bethesda, MD: Child Trends. Retrieved from https://www.childtrends.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/59_Family_Structure.pdf.Google Scholar
- Crockett, L. J., & Zamboanga, B. L. (2009). Substance use among Latino adolescents. In: In F. A. Villarruel, G. Carlo, J. M. Grau, M. Azmitia, N. J. Caberra, T. J. Chahin, (eds.) Handbook of Latino psychology:Developmental and community-based perspectives. (pp. 379–398). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- Cruz-Santiago, M., & Ramírez García, J. I. (2011). Hay que ponerse en los zapatos del joven: adaptive parenting of adolescent children among Mexican-American parents residing in a dangerous neighborhood. Family Process, 50, 92–114. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1545-5300.2010.01348.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- DuRant, R. H., Smith, J. A., Kreiter, S. R., & Krowchuk, D. P. (1999). The relationship between early age of onset of initial substance use and engaging in multiple health risk behaviors among young adolescents. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 153, 286–291. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpedi.153.3.286.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fry, R., & Gonzales, F. (2008). One-in-five and growing fast: A profile of Hispanic public school students. Washington, DC: Pew Hispanic Center. Retrieved from http://www.pewhispanic.org/files/reports/92.pdf.Google Scholar
- Harrist, A. W, Henry, C. S, Liu, C., & Morris, A. S. (2018). Family resilience: The power of rituals and routines in family adaptive systems.In: In B. H. Fiese(ed.) The APA handbook of contemporary family psychology: Foundations, methods, and changing forms, Volume 1. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Press.Google Scholar
- Hirschi, T. (1969). Causes of delinquency. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
- Johnston, L. D, Miech, R. A, O’Malley, P. M, Bachman, J. G, Schulenberg, J. E., & Patrick, M. E. (2018a). Demographic subgroup trends among adolescents in the use of various licit and illicit drugs, 1975–2017 (Monitoring the Future occasional paper No. 90). Ann Arbor, MI: Institute for Social Research, The University of Michigan. Retrieved from http://www.monitoringthefuture.org/pubs/occpapers/mtf-occ90.pdf.
- Johnston, L. D, Miech, R. A, O’Malley, P. M, Bachman, J. G, Schulenberg, J. E., & Patrick, M. E. (2018b). Monitoring the Future national survey results on drug use: 1975-2017: Overview, key findings on adolescent drug use. Ann Arbor, MI: Institute for Social Research, The University of Michigan. Retrieved from http://www.monitoringthefuture.org//pubs/monographs/mtf-overview2017.pdf.
- Kann, L., McManus, T., Harris, W. A., Shanklin, S. L., Flint, K. H., Hawkins, J., Zaza, S. (2016). Youth risk behavior surveillance – United States, 2015. MMWR, 65(6), 1–174. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/data/yrbs/pdf/2015/ss6506_updated.pdf.
- Lambert, S. F., Brown, T. L., Phillips, C. M., & Ialongo, N. S. (2004). The relationship between perceptions of neighborhood characteristics and substance use among urban African American adolescents. American Journal of Community Psychology, 34, 205–218. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10464-004-7415-3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Leventhal, T, Dupéré, V., & Shuey, E. A. (2015). Children in neighborhoods. In: M. Lerner (Series Ed.) & M. H. Bornstein, T. Leventhal, (eds.) Handbook of child psychology and developmental science: Ecological settings and processes. 7th ed. pp. 493–533). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Long, J. S., & Freese, J. (2006). Regression models for categorical dependent variables using Stata. College Station, TX: Stata Press.Google Scholar
- Mason, C. A., Walker-Barnes, C. J., Tu, S., Simons, J., & Martinez-Arrue, R. (2004). Ethnic differences in the affective meaning of parental control behaviors. Journal of Primary Prevention, 25, 59–79. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:JOPP.0000039939.83804.37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mason, W., Hitch, J. E., Kosterman, R., McCarty, C. A., Herrenkohl, T. I., & Hawkins, J. (2010). Growth in adolescent delinquency and alcohol use in relation to young adult crime, alcohol use disorders, and risky sex: A comparison of youth from low-versus middle-income backgrounds. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51, 1377–1385. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2010.02292.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Miech, R. A., Johnston, L. D., O’Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., Schulenberg, J. E., & Patrick, M. E. (2018). Monitoring the Future national survey results on drug use, 1975–2017: Volume I, Secondary school students. Ann Arbor: Institute for Social Research, The University of Michigan. Retrieved from http://monitoringthefuture.org/pubs/monographs/mtf-vol1_2017.pdf.Google Scholar
- Pleck, J. H (2010). Paternal involvement: Revised conceptualization and theoretical linkages with child outcomes.In: M. E. Lamb (Ed.) The role of the father in child development. 5th ed. (pp. 58–93). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
- Preacher, K. J., Curran, P. J., & Bauer, D. J. (2006). Computational tools for probing interaction effects in multiple linear regression, multilevel modeling, and latent curve analysis. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 31, 437–448. https://doi.org/10.3102/10769986031004437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rutter, M. (1987). Psychosocial resilience and protective mechanisms. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 57, 316–331. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-0025.1987.tb03541.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sorkhabi, N., & Mandara, J. (2013). Are the effects of Baumrind’s parenting styles culturally specific or culturally equivalent? In A. S. Morris, R. E. Larzelere & A. W. Harrist (Eds.), Authoritative parenting: Synthesizing nurturance and discipline for optimal child development (pp. 137-161). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Press.Google Scholar
- StataCorp. (2013). Stata statistical software: release 13. College Station, TX: StataCorp.Google Scholar
- Thoma, R. J., Monnig, M. A., Lysne, P. A., Ruhl, D. A., Pommy, J. A., Bogenschutz, M., & Yeo, R. A. (2011). Adolescent substance abuse: The effects of alcohol and marijuana on neuropsychological performance. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 35, 39–46. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.2010.01320.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Werner, E. E. (2005). Resilience research: Past, present, and future. In R. D. Peters, B. Leadbeater & R. J. McMahon (Eds.), Resilience in children, families, and communities: Linking context to practice and policy (pp. 3–11). New York, NY: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.Google Scholar