Paternal Depressive Symptoms and Parenting Behaviors: An Updated Meta-Analysis
- 44 Downloads
The primary objective of the current study was to provide a summary of the strength of the relationship between paternal depressive symptoms and parenting behaviors. The secondary objective of this study was to examine whether specific factors moderate the magnitude of this relationship.
A series of meta-analyses were conducted to examine the strength of the association between paternal depressive symptoms and parenting behaviors. Several moderator analyses were also conducted to examine whether specific factors influenced the strength of the relationship. Moderators analyzed included: mean paternal age, mean child age, paternal relationship status, informant of parenting behaviors, and bibliographic factors.
The current study found a small relationship between paternal depressive symptoms and both positive (r= –.16; 95% CI [–.20, –.13]; k= 35; p < .001) and negative (r= .17; 95% CI [.13, .21]; k= 28; p < .001) parenting behaviors. The relationship between paternal depressive symptoms and overall parenting behaviors was significantly moderated by the informant of the parenting behavior, where father-reports of parenting behaviors (vs. child-reports, mother-reports, or observation) were associated with larger effect sizes.
The results of this study suggest that practitioners should be mindful of the relationship between paternal depressive symptoms and parenting behaviors when working with families. Suggestions for future research and treatment implications are provided.
KeywordsPaternal depression Parenting behaviors Parenting Meta-analysis
We would like to thank Michelle Ward, Brenna Henrikson, and Rachel Goertzen for their assistance with the completion of this study. We would also like to thank Drs. Diane Hiebert-Murphy, Caroline Piotrowski, Kristin Reynolds, Jean-François Bureau, and John Walker, for their helpful suggestions.
K.C. designed and executed the study, conducted the data analyses, and wrote the paper. J.T. collaborated with the design of the study, the writing of the study, and the editing of the final manuscript.
This project was supported by a grant from the American Psychological Foundation, the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council (SSHRC) Doctoral Fellowship, and the Direct Aid to Achieve (DATA) Award from the Department of Psychology at the University of Manitoba.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Research involving Human Participants. This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.
Participants were not recruited for the current study and therefore, obtaining informed consent was not required.
- Beck, A. T. (1972). Depression: Causes and treatment. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
- Borenstein, M., Hedges, L., Higgins, J., & Rothstein, H. (2013). Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Version 3.0. Englewood, NJ: Biostat.Google Scholar
- Card, N. A. (2012). Applied meta-analysis for social science research. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Cheung, K., Taillieu, T., Turner, S., Fortier, J., Sareen, J., MacMillan, H. L., Boyle, M. H., & Afifi, T. O. (2018). Individual-level factors related to better mental health outcomes following child maltreatment among adolescents. Child Abuse & Neglect, 78, 192–202. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2018.02.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Cheung, K., & Theule, J. (2018). Paternal depression and child externalizing behaviors: a meta-analysis. Journal of Family Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1037/fam0000473
- Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. 2nd ed. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Conger, R. D., Conger, K. J., Elder, G. H., Lorenz, F. O., Simons, R. L., & Whitbeck, L. B. (1992). A family process model of economic hardship and adjustment of early adolescent boys. Child Development, 63, 526–541. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.1992.tb01644.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Conger, R. D., Patterson, G. R., & Ge, X. (1995). It takes two to replicate: a mediational model for the impact of parents’ stress on adolescent adjustment. Child Development, 66, 80–97. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.1995.tb00857.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Dette-Hagenmeyer, D. E., & Reichle, B. (2014). Parents’ depressive symptoms and children’s adjustment over time are mediated by parenting, but differentially for fathers and mothers. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 11, 196–210. https://doi.org/10.1080/17405629.2013.848789.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Domenech Rodríguez, M. M., Donovick, M. R., & Crowley, S. L. (2009). Parenting styles in a cultural context: observations of “protective parenting” in first-generation Latinos. Family Process, 48, 195–210. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1545-5300.2009.01277.x.
- Du Rocher Schudlich, T. D. (2004). Parental dysphoria, marital conflict, and parenting: Relations with children’s emotional security and adjustment (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from Dissertations and Thesesdatabase. (UMI 3102470).Google Scholar
- Du Rocher Schudlich, T. D., & Cummings, E. M. (2007). Parental dysphoria and children’s adjustment: marital conflict styles, children’s emotional security, and parenting as mediators of risk. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 35, 627–639. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-007-9118-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Elgar, F. J., Mills, R. S., McGrath, P. J., Waschbusch, D. A., & Brownridge, D. A. (2007). Maternal and paternal depressive symptoms and child maladjustment: the mediating role of parental behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology , 35, 943–955. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-007-9145-0.
- Epkins, C. C., & Harper, S. L. (2016). Mothers’ and fathers’ parental warmth, hostility/rejection/neglect, and behavioral control: specific and unique relations with parents’ depression versus anxiety symptoms. Parenting: Science and Practice, 16, 125–145. https://doi.org/10.1080/15295192.2016.1134991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Foster, C. E., Webster, M. C., Weissman, M. M., Pilowsky, D. J., Wickramaratne, P. J., Rush, A. J., & King, C. A. (2008). Course and severity of maternal depression: associations with family functioning and child adjustment. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 37, 906–916. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-007-9216-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Gartstein, M. A., & Fagot, B. I. (2003). Parental depression, parenting and family adjustment, and child effortful control: explaining externalizing behaviors for preschool children. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 24, 143–177. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0193-3973(03)00043-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Goodman, W. B. (2009). Work and family relationships for fathers in diverse samples: an ecological perspective (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from Dissertations and Thesesdatabase. (UMI 3524612).Google Scholar
- Higgins, J. P. T., & Green, S. (2011). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions (Version 5.1.0). The Cochrane Collaboration. Retrieved from http://training.cochrane.org/handbook/
- Hopewell, S., Loudon, K., Clarke, M., Moher, D., Scholten, R., Eisinga, A., & French, S. (2008). A decision tool for updating Cochrane reviews. The Cochrane Collaboration. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1893/24190
- Lipsey, M. W., & Wilson, D. B. (2001). Practical meta-analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- Medeiros, C., Gouveia, M. J., Canavarro, M. C., & Moreira, H. (2016). The indirect effect of the mindful parenting of mothers and fathers on the child’s perceived well-being through the child’s attachment to parents. Mindfulness, 7, 916–927. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-016-0530-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Moher, D., Liberati, A., Tetzlaff, J., & Altman, D. G. (2009). Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. PLoS Med, 6, e1000100 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000100.
- Nelson, J. A., O’Brien, M., Blankson, A. N., Calkins, S. D., & Keane, S. P. (2009). Family stress and parental responses to children’s negative emotions: tests of the spillover, crossover, and compensatory hypotheses. Journal of Family Psychology, 23, 671–679. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0015977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Onatsu-Arvilommi, T., Nurmi, J. E., & Aunola, K. (1998). Mothers’ and fathers’ well-being, parenting styles, and their children’s cognitive and behavioural strategies at primary school. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 13, 543–556. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03173104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Parfitt, Y. M. (2013). The transition to parenthood: a prospective study of parental mental health, family relationships and infant development (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI U618527).Google Scholar
- Park, Y. S., Kim, B. S., Chiang, J., & Ju, C. M. (2010). Acculturation, enculturation, parental adherence to Asian cultural values, parenting styles, and family conflict among Asian American college students. Asian American Journal of Psychology, 1, 67–79. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0018961.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Parker, K., & Wang, W. (2013). Modern parenthood: Roles of moms and dads converge as they balance work and family. Retrieved from the Pew Research Center Social & Demographic Trends project website: http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/3/2013/03/FINAL_modern_parenthood_03-2013.pdf
- Pew Research Center (2015). Parenting in America: Outlook, worries, aspirations are strongly linked to financial situation. Retrieved from the Pew Research Center Social & Demographic Trends project website: http://www.pewresearch.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/3/2015/12/2015-12-17_parenting-in-america_FINAL.pdf
- Putnick, D. L., Bornstein, M. H., Hendricks, C., Painter, K. M., Suwalsky, J. T. D., & Collins, W. A. (2008). Parenting stress, perceived parenting behaviors, and adolescent self-concept in European American families. Journal of Family Psychology, 22, 752–762. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0013177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Putnick, D. L., Bornstein, M. H., Lansford, J. E., Chang, L., Deater-Deckard, K., Di Giunta, L., & Pastorelli, C. (2012). Agreement in mother and father acceptance-rejection, warmth, and hostility/rejection/neglect of children across nine countries. Cross-Cultural Research, 46, 191–223. https://doi.org/10.1177/1069397112440931.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Reeb, B. T. (2012). Paternal depression and offspring functioning across adolescence: the role of the family context and environment (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI 3540786).Google Scholar
- Rizvi, S. J., Cyriac, A., Grima, E., Tan, M., Lin, P., Gallaugher, L. A., Kennedy, S. H. (2015). Depression and employment status in primary and tertiary care settings. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 60, 14–22. https://doi.org/10.1177/070674371506000105
- Rubin, K. H. & Chung, O. B. (Eds.) (2013). Parenting beliefs, behaviors, and parent-child relations: a cross-cultural perspective. New York, NY: Psychology Press, Taylor & Francis Group.Google Scholar
- Sotomayor‐Peterson, M., Wilhelm, M. S., & Card, N. A. (2011). Marital relationship quality and couples’ cognitive stimulation practices toward their infants: actor and partner effects of White and Hispanic parents. Early Child Development and Care, 181, 103–122. https://doi.org/10.1080/03004430903271160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Taraban, L., Shaw, D. S., Leve, L. D., Natsuaki, M. N., Ganiban, J. M., Reiss, D., & Neiderhiser, J. M. (2018). Parental depression, overreactive parenting, and early childhood externalizing problems: moderation by social support. Child Development. Advanced online publication. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.13027
- Vismara, L., Rollè, L., Agostini, F., Sechi, C., Fenaroli, V., Molgora, S., & Polizzi, C. (2016). Perinatal parenting stress, anxiety, and depression outcomes in first-time mothers and fathers: a 3-to 6-months postpartum follow-up study. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 938 https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00938.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wilson, S. (2012). The Laboratory Parenting Assessment Battery (Lab-PAB): Development and validation of an observational parenting rating system (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI 3527645).Google Scholar