Indulgent Parenting, Helicopter Parenting, and Well-being of Parents and Emerging Adults
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Research on indulgent parenting in childhood and adolescence and its association with helicopter parenting in emerging adulthood and the well-being of parents and emerging adult children is limited. In this study, we examined (1) the association between indulgent parenting in childhood and adolescence and helicopter parenting in emerging adulthood, (2) the association between indulgent parenting and parents’ parenting stress and negative well-being, and (3) whether helicopter parenting mediated the association between indulgent parenting and emerging adults’ psychological problems.
The sample was composed of 449 college students with a subsample of 142 parent-student dyads.
Results from analyses on parents (Part I, N = 142) and emerging adults (Part II, N = 449) suggested that (1) indulgent parenting in childhood and adolescence was associated with helicopter parenting in emerging adulthood (b = .69, p < .01 in Part I; b = .58, p < .01 in Part II), (2) there was a positive association between indulgent parenting and parents’ negative well-being (b = .26, p < .01 in Part I) and parenting stress (b = .29, p < .01 in Part I), and (3) helicopter parenting mediated the association between indulgent parenting and emerging adults’ depressive and anxiety symptoms and emotional dysregulation (.15, 95% CI .03 to .43 in Part II).
Implications for parenting and emerging adult health programs were discussed.
KeywordsEmerging adulthood Helicopter parenting Indulgent parenting Parenting stress Well-being
M.C.: designed and executed the study, performed data analyses, and wrote the paper. C.A.D.: collaborated with the design of the study and editing of the final manuscript. C.C.: assisted with manuscript editing. F.D.F.: assisted with manuscript editing. R.W.M.: assisted with data collection and editing of the final manuscript.
This study was funded by the National Council on Family Relations Innovation Grant Program.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in this study involving human subjects were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) of Florida State University and Florida International University.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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