A full 3D model of the modulation efficiency of a submicron complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible interleaved-junction optical phase shifter

  • Abdurrahman Javid ShaikhEmail author
  • Fauzi Packeer
  • Mirza Muhammad Ali Baig
  • Othman Sidek


The optimization of the performance of optical modulators requires reasonably accurate predictive models for key figures of merit. The interleaved PN junction topology offers the maximum mode/junction overlap and enables the most efficient modulators for depletion-mode operation. Due to the structure of such devices, accurate modeling must be fully three dimensional (3D), representing a nontrivial computational problem. A rigorous 3D model for the modulation efficiency of a silicon-on-insulator interleaved-junction optical phase modulator with submicron dimensions is presented herein. The drift–diffusion and Poisson’s equations are solved on a 3D finite-element mesh, while Maxwell’s equations are solved using the finite-difference time-domain method on 3D Yee cells. The entire modeling process is presented in detail, and all the coefficients required by the model are presented. The model validation suggests < 10% root-mean-square (RMS) error.


Optical modulators Interleaved PN junctions Optical phase shifters 3D optoelectronic modeling Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) Silicon photonics Integrated optics 



This work is partially supported by Universiti Sains Malaysia Research University Short-Term Grant No. 304/PELECT/6315067.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Electrical EngineeringNED University of Engineering and TechnologyKarachiPakistan
  2. 2.School of Electrical and Electronic EngineeringUniversiti Sains MalaysiaNibong TebalMalaysia

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