Developing a Tool for Evaluating Ageism in Nursing Care of Older People in Kashan/Iran

  • Parvin Ahmadi
  • Negin Masoudi AlaviEmail author
  • Hamid Reza Gilasi
  • Azade Safa
  • Mohammad Aghajani


Ageism implies negative views and attitudes towards older people. These unconscious behaviors could make the elderly feel as if they were no longer useful for the family and community. Ageism is common in healthcare services. The objective of this study was to develop a tool to assess ageism in nursing care in Kashan/Iran 2015. This psychometric study was carried out in four stages: literature review for item generation; content validity testing; exploratory factor analysis (EFA) for evaluation of construct validity; and reliability assessment. The data analyzed with SPSS version 16. The final questionnaire had 24 items. The total CVI and CVR were 0.88 and 0.57. Explanatory factor analysis identified 3 factors of respecting older adult in nursing care (14 items); age discrimination and negative views towards older adults (5 items); attention to older adult and their basic caring needs (5 items). The three factors could explain 49.54% of variance. The test-re-test correlation stood at 0.9. The internal consistency of the questionnaire was Cronbach’s alpha =0.85. A valid and reliable instrument for the evaluation of ageism in nursing care was developed in this study.


Ageism Nursing care Validity and reliability Factor analysis 



We are grateful to all the experts who shared their comments and views with us, and the nurses who participated in this study. The authors acknowledge the research deputy of Kashan University of Medical Sciences for funding and supporting this research with the grant number 94038.


This study was funded and supported by deputy of research in Kashan University of Medical Sciences with grant number 94038.

Negin Masoudi Alavi has received research grants from Kashan University of Medical Sciences. Parvin Ahmadi was a master degree student in geriatric nursing in Kashan University of Medical Sciences. Dr. Hamidreza Gilasi, Azadeh Safa, and Mohammad Aghajani are faculty members in Kashan University of Medical Sciences who participated in this research project.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

The ethical committee of the Kashan University of Medical Sciences approved the study protocol with the code number: IR.KAUMS.REC.1394.38.

Informed Consent

Participants were informed about the aims of the study before they signed the consent form. In all stages of the study the anonymity of the participants was respected. The study protocol was based on Helsinki Declaration of Ethics in Research.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Medical Surgical Nursing DepartmentKashan University of Medical SciencesKashanIran
  2. 2.Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Trauma Nursing Research CenterKashan University of Medical SciencesKashanIran
  3. 3.Department of Epidemiology and statisticsKashan University of Medical SciencesKashanIran

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