Nutrient composition and protein quality of microalgae meals produced from the marine prymnesiophyte Pavlova sp. 459 mass-cultivated in enclosed photobioreactors for potential use in salmonid aquafeeds
Pavlova sp. 459 has been used as a high-quality liquid live-feed for cultivated bivalves, while this is its first evaluation as a low-trophic dry aquafeed ingredient. Pav459 was batch-cultivated in photobioreactors and prepared as an intact-cell meal (direct freeze-drying) and a cell-ruptured meal (freeze-drying following microfluidic high-pressure homogenization) and evaluated for nutritional characteristics relevant for salmonid aquafeeds. Protein quality was based on essential amino acid (EAA) profiles, chemical scores, and in vitro 2-phase gastric/pancreatic digestion (GPD) for salmonids. Nutrients were well-preserved after processing and meals contained 66% protein, 16% lipid, 7% carbohydrate, 24 MJ kg-1 DW energy, and 11% ash. Protein quality of the meals was good as indicated by their high EAA/non-EAA ratios (0.91), high EAA indices of 0.82–1.06 (relative to egg albumin, premium fish meal, and soy protein), high chemical scores (1.4–2.2) for most EAAs (calculated against published salmonid dietary requirements), and high in vitro GPD (82%), irrespective of cell-rupture. Pav459 meals contained health-promoting compounds (fucoxanthin, 358–368 mg (100 g)-1 DW; lutein, 101–162 mg (100 g)-1 DW; total phenolic compounds, 33 mg gallic acid equivalents g−1 DW) with negligible contaminating heavy metals (< 1 ppm) and anti-nutritional factors (ANFs) (1 TUI mg−1 DW trypsin inhibition; < 10 mg g−1DW phytate). Pav459 lipid was highest in PUFA (> 60% of FAME), most of which was nutritionally superior n-3 series (50–52% of FAME) relative to n-6 series (10% of FAME). In addition, the vast majority of n-3 PUFA (81%) was comprised of essential LC-PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) at 3% of the meals and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) at 2% of the meals.
KeywordsComposition Haptophyta In vitro digestibility Microalgae Pavlova Salmonids
The authors thank all of those who kindly provided valuable expertise and assistance during the study. In particular, Sabahudin Hrapovic, Roumiana Stefanova, and Fang Huang kindly provided the SEM images, carotenoid composition, and ANFs data, respectively. Technical consultations and logistical support of Drs. Patrick McGinn and Fabrice Berrué are greatly appreciated and the helpful reviews of Ms. Kathryn Dickinson and Dr. Stefanie Colombo are acknowledged. This is ACRD publication no. 56444.
This work was financially supported by NRC’s Algal Carbon Conversion and AgriFood programs.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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