In vitro and in situ evaluation of Undaria pinnatifida as a feed ingredient for ruminants

  • You Young Choi
  • Shin Ja Lee
  • Ye Jun Lee
  • Hyun Sang Kim
  • Jun Sik Eom
  • Seong Uk Jo
  • Sung Sill LeeEmail author


The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential effects of feeding the brown alga Undaria pinnatifida (sea mustard, miyeok, wakame) on in vitro rumen fermentation parameters and in situ dry matter disappearance (DMD) and to identify functional metabolites using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR). Rumen fluid donors were two rumen-cannulated Hanwoo cows with free access to water and a mineral-vitamin block. The in vitro trial was performed after 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h with U. pinnatifida added at concentrations of 1, 3, 5, and 10% of total ration. The U. pinnatifida DM digestibility was higher than that with the 0% added samples at several incubation times. Microbial growth rate was significantly higher (quadratic effect, P = 0.0003) after 6 h of incubation with 3, 5, and 10% added fermentation than 0% added samples. Supplementation with 10% of U. pinnatifida significantly increased total VFA concentrations compared to those with the 0% added samples. The in situ trial was performed for up to 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h with 5 g U. pinnatifida to estimate DMD from the bag in the rumen. The DMD of U. pinnatifida was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) than that of timothy hay at all fermentation periods. 1H-NMR was used to identify the functional metabolites in U. pinnatifida, including amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins, and organic acids. These results indicated that U. pinnatifida has considerable potential to enhance feed conversion efficiency and contains component with nutritional benefits. Long-term feeding trials are required to determine the effect of U. pinnatifida as a feed ingredient for ruminants.


Chemical composition 1H-NMR analysis Nutritive value Ruminal degradability Ruminal fermentation Undaria pinnatifida 


Funding information

This work was supported by the National Foundation of Korea Grant funded by the Korean Government (NRF-2015R1A6A1A03031413).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.


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© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Applied Life Science (BK21Plus) and Institute of Agriculture & Life Science (IALS)Gyeongsang National UniversityJinjuSouth Korea
  2. 2.Institute of Agriculture and Life Science & University-Centered LabsGyeongsang National UniversityJinjuSouth Korea

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