Bioaccumulation and biotransformation of arsenic by the brown macroalga Sargassum patens C. Agardh in seawater: effects of phosphate and iron ions
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The toxicity and bioaccumulation and biotransformation potential of inorganic arsenic (IAs) species As(V) and As(III) were investigated using Sargassum patens under laboratory culture for 7 days. Algal chlorophyll fluorescence decreased with increasing As(V) and As(III) concentrations, being significantly affected by As(III) treatments. Higher As(III) concentration negatively affected growth rate, and P and Fe limitation greatly enhanced IAs toxicity. The extracellular, intracellular, and total bioaccumulation of As(III) and As(V) varied significantly depending on initial concentrations and addition of P and Fe. P and Fe availability suppressed intracellular As accumulation in As(V) medium but not in As(III) medium. In P-rich (10 μmol L−1) medium, intracellular As was reduced by 4.7% and 9.9% when As(V) in the medium was constant (4.0 μmol L−1), under Fe-limited (0 μmol L−1) and Fe-rich (10 μmol L−1) conditions, respectively. However, the Fe-rich condition positively affected extracellular As accumulation from both As source. Extracellular As increased by 43.5% and 38.8% in P-limited + Fe-rich cultures with 4.0 μmol L−1 of As(V) and As(III), respectively. Algae exhibited greater absorption and adsorption to As(V) than to As(III). The reduced metabolites of As(III) (3.5 to 4.9% of the total As) and oxidized metabolites of As(V) (2.0 to 3.7% of the total As) were recorded as biotransformed species from coexisting media containing As(V) and As(III) at a constant 4.0 μmol L−1, respectively. Both P and Fe had significant influences on the variation in behaviors of IAs. This information is vital in terms of As research in marine ecosystems.
KeywordsBioaccumulation Biotransformation Chlorophyll fluorescence Inorganic As Macroalgae Sargassum patens Phaeophyta
The study has been partially supported by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (15H05118 and 17K00622) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.
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