Co-cultivation and stepwise cultivation of Chaetoceros muelleri and Amphora sp. for fucoxanthin production under gradual salinity increase

  • Tasneema Ishika
  • Damian W Laird
  • Parisa A Bahri
  • Navid R MoheimaniEmail author


In a seawater-based open pond microalgae cultivation system salinity will increase gradually over time due to evaporative loss. Continuous salinity increase would lead to non-optimal salinities which negatively affect the biomass and fucoxanthin productivity. To increase and maintain high overall biomass and fucoxanthin productivity, even in the non-optimal salinity zone, two cultivation methods for marine and halotolerant microalgae were carried out, co-cultivation and stepwise cultivation (sequential cultivation). Two fucoxanthin-producing diatoms, Chaetoceros muelleri (marine) and Amphora sp. (halotolerant), were cultivated at non-optimal salinities between 59 and 65‰. Stepwise cultivation showed approximately 63% higher total biomass and 47% higher fucoxanthin productivity than that of co-culture. The ability to reutilize culture media in the stepwise cultivation increases the sustainability of that method. The use of a stepwise culture regime, coupled with a regimen of gradually increasing salinity, provides the possibility of year round fucoxanthin production from microalgae.


Bacillariophyta Fucoxanthin Microalgae Salinity Co-cultivation Stepwise cultivation 



We are thankful to Emeka G. Nwoba, PhD student, Algae R& D Centre, School of Veterinary and Life Sciences, Murdoch University, Western Australia, for his assistance in extracting fucoxanthin and lipid.

Supplementary material

10811_2018_1718_MOESM1_ESM.docx (31 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 31 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tasneema Ishika
    • 1
  • Damian W Laird
    • 2
  • Parisa A Bahri
    • 2
  • Navid R Moheimani
    • 1
  1. 1.Algae R&D Centre, School of Veterinary and Life SciencesMurdoch UniversityMurdochAustralia
  2. 2.School of Engineering and Information TechnologyMurdoch UniversityMurdochAustralia

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