Dietary substitution effect of Ulva australis for Undaria pinnatifida on growth, body composition and air exposure of juvenile abalone, Haliotis discus (Reeve 1846)
Substitution effect of Undaria pinnatifida with Ulva australis in formulated diet on growth, body composition and air exposure of abalone (Haliotis discus) was investigated. A total of 1260 juvenile abalone were distributed into 21 cages. Six formulated diets and dry Undaria were prepared. The control (UA0) diet contained 20% U. pinnatifida. Twenty, 40, 60, 80, and 100% U. pinnatifida were substituted with the same amount of U. australis, referred to as the UA20, UA40, UA60, UA80, and UA100 diets, respectively. Undaria was prepared to compare effect of formulated diet on performance of abalone. Abalone were fed with one of the experimental diets for 16 weeks. After the 16-week feeding trial, abalone were subjected to air exposure for 24 h, and then, cumulative mortality was monitored for the next 4 days. Higher survival, weight gain, and specific growth rate (SGR) were observed in abalone fed all formulated diets than the Undaria. Abalone fed the UA60 diet produced the greatest weight gain and SGR. No difference in proximates of the soft body of abalone was observed. The cumulative mortality of abalone fed the Undaria was higher than all formulated diets at 84 h until the end of the 4-day post observation after 24-h air exposure. Abalone fed the UA0 diet showed higher mortality than other formulated diets at 84 h until the end of the 4-day post observation. In conclusion, U. pinnatifida could be completely replaced with U. australis in abalone feed. The best growth was obtained in abalone fed the UA60 diet.
KeywordsAlgae Abalone (Haliotis discus) Undaria pinnatifida Ulva australis Dietary substitution Air exposure
This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (2017R1A2B4009773). This work was also supported by a grant from the National Institute of Fisheries Science, Republic of Korea (R2018009).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- AOAC (1990) Official methods of analysis, 15th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, ArlingtonGoogle Scholar
- Cho SH (2010) Effect of fishmeal substitution with various animal and/or plant protein sources in the diet of the abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Aquac Res 41:e587–e593Google Scholar
- Cho SH, Park J, Kim C, Yoo J, Lee S (2006) Effect of the various sources of dietary additives on growth, body composition and shell color of abalone Haliotis discus hannai. J Aquac 19:275–280Google Scholar
- Cho SH, Kim C, Cho YJ, Lee B, Park J, Yoo J, Lee S (2008b) Effects of the various dietary additives on growth and tolerance of abalone Haliotis discus hannai against stress. J Aquac 21:309–316Google Scholar
- Choi J, Ma Y, Lee B, Moon HE, Cho KK, Cho IS (2014) Seasonal variation of antibacterial activities in the green alga Ulva pertusa Kjellman. J Environ Biol 35:341–344Google Scholar
- Choi DG, Kim J, Yun A, Cho SH, Jeong HS, Lee KW, Kim HS, Kim PY, Ha MS (2018) Dietary substitution effect of fish meal with tunic meal of sea squirt, Halocynthia roretzi, Drasche on growth and soft body composition of juvenile abalone, Haliotis discus, reeve 1846. J World Aquacult Soc (in press)Google Scholar
- FishStatJ (2018) Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. RomeGoogle Scholar
- Jang B, Kim PY, Kim HS, Lee KW, Kim HJ, Choi DG, Cho SH, Min B, Kim K, Han H (2017) Substitution effect of sea tangle (ST) (Laminaria japonica) with tunic of sea squirt (SS) (Halocynthia roretzi) in diet on growth and carcass composition of juvenile abalone (Haliotis discus, Reeve 1846). Aquac Nutr 24:586–593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Myung SH, Jung W, Kim HS, Kim YE, Cho SH, Jwa MS, Kim PY, Kim MK, Park M, Kim B (2016) Effects of dietary substitution of fishmeal with the combined dry microalgae, Nannochloropsis oceanica (NO) biomass residue and casein on growth and body composition of juvenile abalone (Haliotis discus). Aquac Res 47:341–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ohno M (1999) Ulva and excessive growth. In: Notoya M (ed) Utilization of Ulva spp and environmental restoration. Seizando, Tokyo, pp 1–11 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
- Osako K, Ohashi S, Hossain MA, Kuwahara K, Okamoto A, Nozaki Y, Furukawa M (2004) The aptitude of sea lettuce (Ulva pertusa) as a diet for abalone, from a nutritional viewpoint. Suisanzoshoku 52:401–406Google Scholar
- Shpigel M, Ragg NL, Lupatsch I, Neori A (1999) Protein content determines the nutritional value of the seaweed Ulva lactuca L. for the abalone Haliotis tuberculata L. and H. discus hannai Ino. J Shellfish Res 18:227–233Google Scholar
- Viera MP, Courtois de Vicose G, Gomez-Pinchetti JL, Bilbao A, Fernandez-Palacios H, Izquierdo MS (2011) Comparative performance of juvenile abalone (Haliotis tuberculata coccinea reeve) fed enriched vs non-enriched macroalgae: effect on growth and body composition. Aquaculture 319:423–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Yim E, Park I, Han H, Kim S, Cho H, Kim S (2010) Acute toxicity assessment of new algicides of thiazolidinediones derivatives, TD53 and TD49, using Ulva pertusa Kjellman. Environ Health Toxicol 25:273–278Google Scholar