Advertisement

Journal of Applied Phycology

, Volume 31, Issue 2, pp 1355–1368 | Cite as

Spatial and temporal variation of biochemical contents in relation to carrageenan yield of cultivated Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty at different locations of Palk Bay waters, Tamil Nadu, southeast coast of India

  • C. PeriyasamyEmail author
  • P. V. Subba RaoEmail author
  • P. Anantharaman
Article

Abstract

Spatial and temporal variation of biochemical contents and their relation to carrageenan yield (SRC) of cultivated Kappaphycus alvarezii at three different places, viz., Mangadu, Munaikadu, and Vedalai of Palk Bay waters, Tamil Nadu, southeast coast of India, was studied from April 2012 to March 2013. The maximum protein and carbohydrate contents were found to be from 117.36 ± 4.04 to 125.93 ± 1.49 mg g−1 DW and from 219.01 ± 10.83 to 250.71 ± 10.75 mg g−1 DW, respectively, while chlorophyll a, carotenoid, phycoerythrin, and phycocyanin contents varied differently among the three sites. Two-way ANOVA revealed that protein, carbohydrate, chlorophyll a, phycoerythrin, and phycocyanin were found to differ insignificantly both spatially and temporally, while SRC yields were found to differ significantly both spatially (p = 0.038) and temporally (p = 0.008). Carotenoids were significant only spatially (p = 0.001). Carrageenan yield was significantly correlated with chlorophyll a (r = 0.648, p < 0.05) and phycocyanin (r = 0.819, p < 0.01) at Mangadu, and with phycoerythrin (r = 0.728, p < 0.01) and phycocyanin (r = 0.623, p < 0.05) at Vedalai. Among the macroelements, Na recorded the highest value. Maximum mineral content (Macro elements) was recorded at Munaikadu with the minimum at Vedalai. The seaweed may be recommended as a potential candidate to be used as food or in food formulations as an ingredient to improve the nutritional value of the food as it possessed a considerable amount of protein and macro- and micronutrients.

Keywords

Kappaphycus Rhodophyta Chemical composition Pigments Proteins Mineral content 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Dean and Director, CAS in Marine Biology, Faculty of Marine Sciences, Annamalai University, Parangipettai, Cuddalore (District), Tamil Nadu, India, for their encouragement, interest, and facilities provided. Thanks are also due to the higher authorities of Annamalai University, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, India, for rendering timely help in the execution of the work. The authors wish to thank the anonymous reviewers of this paper for their valuable comments resulting in excellent interpretation of the work.

References

  1. Aaronson S (1986) A role for algae as human food in antiquity. Food Foodways 1:311–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abhirami RG, Kowsalya S (2011) Nutrient and nutraceutical potentials of seaweed biomass Ulva lactuca and Kappaphycus alvarezii. J Agri Sci Technol 5:109–115Google Scholar
  3. APHA (1995) American Public Health Association standard methods for the examination for water and wastewater, 19th edn. Byrd Preess Springfield, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  4. Arasaki S Arasaki T (1983) Vegetables from the sea. Japan Publication Inc, Tokyo, pp 1–196Google Scholar
  5. Arnon DI (1949) Copper enzymes in isolated chloroplast, polyphenol oxidase in Beta vulgaris. Plant Physiol 2:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baghel RS, Kumari P, Reddy CRK, Jha B (2014) Growth, pigments, biochemical composition of marine red alga, Gracilaria crassa. J Appl Phycol 26:2143–2150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Benjama O, Masniyom P (2012) Biochemical composition and physiochemical properties of two red seaweeds (Gracilaria fisheri and G. tenuistipitata) from the Pattani Bay in southern Thailand. Songklanakarin J Sci Technol 3492:223–230Google Scholar
  8. Bixler HJ, Porse H (2011) A decade of change in the seaweed hydrocolloids industry. J Appl Phycol 23:321–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bradford MM (1976) A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein dye binding. Anal Biochem 72:248–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Burtin P (2003) Nutritional value of seaweeds. J Environ Agri Food Chem 2:498–503Google Scholar
  11. Cabrita ARJ, Maia MRG, Oliveira HM, Sousa-Pinto I, Almeida AA, Pinto E, Fonseca AJM (2016) Tracing seaweeds as mineral sources for farm-animals. J Appl Phycol 28:3135–3150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cornish ML, Critchley AT, Mouritsen OG (2015) A role for dietary macroalgae in the amelioration of certain risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease. Phycologia 54:649–666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cornish ML, Critchley AT, Mouritsen OG (2017) Consumption of seaweeds and the human brain. J Appl Phycol 29:2377–2398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Craigie JS (2010) Seaweed extract stimuli in plant science and agriculture. J Appl Phycol 23:371–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Darcy Vrillion B (1993) Nutritional aspects of the developing use of marine macroalgae for the human food industry. Int J Food Sci Nutr 44:S23–S35Google Scholar
  16. Dawes CJ, Mathieson AC, Cheney DP (1974) Ecological studies of floridian Eucheuma (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales). I. Seasonal growth and reproduction. Bull Mar Sci 24:235–273Google Scholar
  17. Dillehay TD, Ramirez C, Pino M, Collins MB, Rossen J, Pinot-Navarro JD (2008) Monte Verde: seaweed, food, medicine and the peopling of South America. Science 320:784–789CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dubois M, Giles KA, Hamilton JK, Rebors PA, Smith F (1956) Calorimetric method for determination of sugars and related substances. Anal Chem 28:350–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Eswaran K, Mairh OP, Subba Rao PV (2002) Inhibition of pigments and phycocolloid in a marine red alga Gracilaria edulis by ultraviolet-B radiation. Biol Plant 45:157–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Eswaran K, Subba Rao PV, Mairh OP (2001) Impact of ultraviolet B radiation on a marine red alga Kappaphycus alvarezii (Solieriaceae, Rhodophyta). Ind J Mar Sci 30:105–107Google Scholar
  21. FAO (2014) The state of the world fisheries and aquaculture 2014. FAO, Rome, p 223Google Scholar
  22. Fayaz M, Namitha KK, Chidambara Murthy KN, Mahadevaswamy M, Sarada R, Salma Khanam R, Subba Rao PV, Ravisankar GA (2005) Chemical composition, iron bioavailability and antioxidant activity of Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty). J Agric Food Chem 53:792–797CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fleurence J (1999) Seaweed proteins: Biochemical, nutritional aspects and potential uses. Trends Food Sci Technol 10:25–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fleurence J, Le Coeur C, Mabeau S, Maurice M, Landrein A (1995) Comparison of different extractive procedures for proteins from the edible seaweeds, Ulva rigida and Ulva rotundata. J Appl Phycol 7:577–582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ganesan K, Suresh Kumar K, Subba Rao PV, Tsukui Y, Bhaskar N, Hosokawa M, Miyashita K (2014) Studies on chemical composition of three species of Enteromorpha. Biomed Pre Nut 4:365–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gantar M, Svircev Z (2008) Microalgae and cyanobacteria: food for thought. J Phycol 44:260–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Glenn EP, Doty MS (1990) Growth of seaweeds Kappaphycus alvarezii, K. striatum and Eucheume denticulatum as affected by environment in Hawaii. Aquaculture 84:245–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Goes HG, Ries RP (2012) Temporal variation of the growth, carrageenan yield and quality of Kappaphycus alvarezii (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales) cultivated at Sepetiba Bay, southeastern Brazilian coast. J Appl Phycol 24:173–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hafting JT, Craigie JS, Stengel DB, Loureiro RR, BuschmannAH YC, Edwards MD, Critchley AT (2015) Prospects and challenges for industrial production of seaweed bioactives. J Phycol 51:821–837CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hayashi L, Paula EJD, Chow F (2007) Growth rate and carrageenan analyses in four strains of Kappaphycus alvarezii (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales) farmed in the subtropical waters of Sao Paulo state, Brazil. J Appl Phycol 19:505–511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Indegaard M, Minsaas J (1991) Polysaccharides for food and pharmaceutical uses. In: Guiry MD, Blunden G (eds) Seaweed resources in Europe: uses and potential. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester, pp 169–183Google Scholar
  32. Iskandar A, Syam R, Trijuno DD, Rahmi D (2013) Content of carrageenan, chlorophyll a and carotenoid of Kappaphycus alvarezii cultivated in different seawater depth Laikang village, district of Mangarabombang, Takalkar Regency. J Appl Biotechnol 2:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ito K, Hori K (1980). Seaweed: seaweed marketing and agar industries in Malaysia. In: BOBP: Gracilaria production and utilization in Bay of Bengal Programme, BOBP/REP 45:75–86Google Scholar
  34. Kaehler S, Kennish R (1996) Summer and winter comparisons in the nutritional value of marine macroalgae from Hong Kong. Bot Mar 39:11–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kirk JTO, Allen RL (1965) Dependence of chloroplast pigments synthesis on protein synthesis: effects of actidione. Biochem Biophysics Res Commun 27:523–530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kolb N, Vallorani L, Kozlek D, Stocchi V (2004) Evaluation of marine algae Wakame (Undaria pinnatifida) and Kombu (Laminaria digitata) as a food supplements. Food Technol Biotechnol 42:57–61Google Scholar
  37. Kursar TA, Van Der Meer J, Albert RS (1983) Light harvesting system of red alga Gracilaria tikvahiae. Biochemical analysis of pigment mutation. Plant Physiol 73:353–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Le DH, Hori K, Nang HQ, Kha T, Le TH (2009) Seasonal changes in growth rate, carrageenan yield and lectin content in the red alga Kappaphycus alvarezii cultivated in Camranh Bay, Vietnam. J Appl Phycol 21:265–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Li R, Li S, Wu CY (1990) Effect of ammonium on growth and carrageenan content in Kappaphycus alvarezii (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta). Hydrobiologia 204/205:499–503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Mabeau S, Fleurence J (1993) Seaweed in food products: biochemical and nutritional aspects. Trends Food Sci Tech Biotech 4:103–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. MacArtain P, Gill CIR, Brooks M, Campbell R, Rowland IR (2007) Nutritional value of edible seaweeds. Nutr Rev 65:535–543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Manivannan K, Thirumaran G, Karthiga Devi G, Hemalatha A, Anantharaman P (2008) Biochemical composition of seaweeds from Mandapam coastal region along southeast coast of India. Am Euras J Bot 1:32–37Google Scholar
  43. Mathieson AC, Tveter E (1976) Carrageenan ecology of Gigartina stellata (Stackhouse) batters. Aquat Bot 2:353–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. McHugh DJ (2003) A guide to seaweed industry, FAO Fisheries Technical paper No: 441. FAO, Rome, p 105Google Scholar
  45. McDermid KJ, Stuercke B (2003) Nutritional composition of edible Hawaiian seaweeds. J Appl Phycol 15:513–524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Mehta AS, Mody KH, Iyer A, Ghosh PK (2008) Preparation of semi refined κ carrageenan: recycling of alkali solution and recovery of alkali from spent liquor. Ind J Chem Technol 15:45–52Google Scholar
  47. MHLW (2014) The National Health and Nutrition Survey in Japan, 2004–2014. The Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. http://www.mhlw.go.jp/bunya/kenkou/kenkou_eiyou_chousa.html
  48. Mohamed S, Hashim SN, Rahman HA (2012) Seaweeds: a sustainable functional food for complementary and alternative therapy. Trends Food Sci Technol 23:83–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Morgan KC, Wright JLC, Simpson FJ (1980) Review of chemical constituents of the red algae Palmaria palmat. Econ Bot 34:27–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Munoz J, Freile-Pelegrin Y, Robledo D (2004) Mariculture of Kappaphycus alvarezii (Rhodophyta, Solieriaceae) color strains in tropical waters of Yucatan, Mexico. Aquaculture 239:161–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Naguit MA, Tisera WL (2009) Pigment analysis of Eucheuma denticulatum (Collins and Harvey) and Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) cultivars cultured at different depths. Threshold 4:29–37Google Scholar
  52. Newton L (1951) Seaweed utilization. Sampson Low, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Ohno M, Largo DB, Ikumato T (1994) Growth rate, carrageenan yield and gel properties of cultured kappa carrageenan producing red alga Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty in the subtropical waters of Shikoku, Japan. J Appl Phycol 6:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Ohno M, Nang HO, Hirase S (1996) Cultivation and carrageenan yield and quality of Kappaphycus alvarezii in the waters of Vietnam. J Appl Phycol 8:431–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Parthiban C, Saranya C, Girija K, Hemalatha A, Suresh M, Anantharaman P (2013) Biochemical composition of some selected seaweeds from Tuticorin coast. Adv Appl Sci Res 4:362–366Google Scholar
  56. Periyasamy C, Anantharaman P, Balasubramanian T (2014a) Social upliftment of coastal fisher women through seaweed (Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty) farming in Tamil Nadu, India. J Appl Phycol 26:775–781CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Periyasamy C, Anantharaman P, Balasubramanian T, Subba Rao PV (2014b) Seasonal variation in growth and carrageenan yield in cultivated Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty on the coastal waters of Ramanathapuram, Tamil Nadu, India. J Appl Phycol 26:803–810CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Periyasamy C, Subba Rao PV (2017) Growth rate and carrageenan yield of cultivated Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty in the coastal waters of bay of Bengal at Chepala Timmapuram, Andhra Pradesh, east coast of India. J Appl Phycol 29:1977–1987CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Porse H, Rudolph B (2017) The seaweed hydrocolloid industry: 2016 updates, requirements, and outlook. J Appl Phycol 29:2187–2200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Ruperez P (2002) Mineral content of edible marine seaweeds. Food Chem 79:23–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Santaley NF (1987) Production, properties and uses of carrageenan. In: McHugh DJ (ed) Production and utilization of products from commercial seaweed, FAO Fish. Tech Paper No. 288, p 118–123Google Scholar
  62. Stickland JDH, Parsons TRE (1972) A practical handbook of seawater analysis. Bull Fish Res Board Can 167:311Google Scholar
  63. Subba Rao PV, Ganesan K, Suresh Kumar K (2010) Application of seaweeds as food: a scenario of algal biotechnology. New Vistas. In: Das MK (ed) Daya Publishing house, New Delhi, p 77–92Google Scholar
  64. Subba Rao PV, Mantri VA, Ganesan K (2007) Mineral composition of edible seaweed Porphyra vietnamensis. Food Chem 102:215–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Subba Rao PV, Periyasamy C, Rama Rao K, Srinivasa Rao A (2016) Seaweeds for human welfare. Seaweed Res Utiln 38:1–12Google Scholar
  66. Subba Rao PV, Suresh Kumar K, Ganesan K, Thakur MC (2008) Feasibility of cultivation of Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty at different localities on the northwest coast of India. Aquacult Res 39:1107–1114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Sukran D, Nurhayat D, Didem K, Gamze Y, Egemen D (2003) The determination of total protein, total soluble carbohydrate and pigment contents of some macro algae collected from Gemlik - Karacaali (Bursa) and Erdek Ormanli (Balikesir) in the Sea of Marmara, Turkey. Oceanologia 45:453–471Google Scholar
  68. Suresh Kumar K, Ganesan K, Subba Rao PV (2008) Antioxidant potential of different solvent extracts of Kappaphycus alvarezii an edible seaweed. Food Chem 107:289–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Suresh Kumar K, Ganesan K, Subba Rao PV (2015) Seasonal variation in nutritional composition of Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty—an edible seaweed. J Food Sci Technol 52:2751–2760CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Teas J, Irhimeh MR (2017) Melanoma and brown seaweed: an integrative hypothesis. J Appl Phycol 29:941–948CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Thinakaran T, Sivakumar K (2012) Seasonal variation and biochemical studies on certain seaweeds from Pamban coast, Gulf of Mannar Biosphere reserve. Int J Res Biol Sci 2:39–44Google Scholar
  72. Thirumaran G, Manivannan K, Karthiga Devi G, Anantharaman P, Balasubramanian T (2009) Photosynthetic pigments of different colour strains of the cultured seaweeds Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty ex. P.Silva in Vellar Estuary. Acad J Plant Sci 2:150–153Google Scholar
  73. Trono GC, Ohno M (1989) Seasonality in the biomass production of the Eucheuma strains in northern Bohol, Philippines. In: Umezaki I (ed) Scientific survey of marine algae and their resources in Philippine islands. Monbusho International Scientific Research Program, Japan, pp 71–80Google Scholar
  74. Turner NJ (2003) The ethnobotany of edible seaweed (Porphyra abbottae and related species; Rhodophyta: Bangiales) and its use by First Nations on the Pacific Coast of Canada. Can J Bot 81:283–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Warrand J (2006) Healthy polysaccharides. The next chapter in food products. Food Technol Biotechnol 44:355–370Google Scholar
  76. Wells ML, Potin P, Craigie JS, Raven JA, Merchant SS, Helliwell KE, Smith AG, Camire ME, Brawley SH (2017) Algae as nutritional and functional food sources: revisiting our understanding. J Appl Phycol 29:949–982CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Wheeler PA, Bjornsater BR (1992) Seasonal fluctuation in tissue nitrogen, phosphorus and N: P for five macro algal species common in the Pacific northwest coast. J Appl Phycol 28:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Wong KH, Cheung PCK (2000) Nutritional evaluation of some subtropical red and green seaweeds. Part I—proximate composition, amino acid profiles and some physicochemical properties. Food Chem 71:475–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Botany, Pasumpon Muthuramalinga Thevar College, MelaneelithanallurManonmanium Sundaranar UniversityTirunelveliIndia
  2. 2.Aquaculture Foundation of IndiaMaduraiIndia
  3. 3.CAS in Marine BiologyAnnamalai UniversityParangipettaiIndia

Personalised recommendations