Journal of Applied Phycology

, Volume 30, Issue 6, pp 3335–3350 | Cite as

Drying and extraction effects on three edible brown seaweeds for metabolomics

  • Shahlizah Sahul Hamid
  • Masataka WakayamaEmail author
  • Tomoyoshi Soga
  • Masaru Tomita
8th Asian Pacific Phycological Forum


Metabolomics is often used to comprehensively elucidate the metabolites in organisms like seaweed. Amino acids hydrolysed from proteins and certain targeted metabolites in seaweed have been investigated. However, water-soluble metabolites like free amino acids, organic acids, and sugars have seldom been comprehensively analysed. Metabolomics are valuable tools for these studies, but they require optimisation of pre-treatment methodology. Here, we evaluated various pre-treatment drying and extraction methods for brown seaweed metabolomics. Three edible brown seaweeds (Cladosiphon okamuranus [Mozuku], Saccharina japonica [Kombu], and Undaria pinnatifida [Wakame]) were used. Freeze-drying and oven-drying at both 40 and 80 °C were investigated. Methanol-water extracts with and without chloroform were compared. Metabolites were evaluated and quantified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry. The results showed that metabolite profiling was determined mainly by seaweed species identity rather than pre-treatment method. Freeze-drying yielded higher metabolite concentrations than oven-drying at either 40 or 80 °C. The effects of extraction with and without chloroform on metabolite concentration varied with seaweed species.


Phaeophyceae Metabolomics Brown seaweed Drying methods Extraction methods 



The authors thank Dr. Tatsuki Ogura and Mr. Yujin Ashio (Institute for Advanced Biosciences, Keio University, Japan) for their helpful suggestions.

Funding information

This study was funded by the Yamagata prefectural government and by the city of Tsuruoka. It was also supported by a scholarship from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology (MEXT), Japan, for an international student (Hamid, S.S).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Supplementary material

10811_2018_1614_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (5.8 mb)
ESM 1 Fig. S1 PCA a) score plots and b) loading plots of metabolites concentrations in three brown seaweed after all drying and extractions methods. The horizontal axis value indicates PC1-PC4 separation variance and the vertical axis value indicates PC2-5 separation variance. The blue colour box indicate the metabolites which contributed to PC1. The green colour box indicate the metabolites which contributed to PC2. All legends and abbreviations are as same as Fig.1. The abbreviations for metabolites as same as Fig. 2. Fig. S2 PCA a) score plots and b) loading plots of metabolites concentrations in freeze-dry methods. All other legends and abbreviations are as same as Fig. S1. Fig. S3 PCA a) score plots and b) loading plots of metabolites concentrations in oven-dry at 40 °C. All other legends and abbreviations are as same as Fig. S1. Fig. S4 PCA a) score plots and b) loading plots of metabolites concentrations in oven-dry at 80 °C. All other legends and abbreviations are as same as Fig. S1. Fig. S5 PCA a) score plots and b) loading plots of metabolites concentrations in methanol: chloroform: water extraction methods. All other legends and abbreviations are as same as Fig. S1. Fig. S6 PCA a) score plots and b) loading plots of metabolites concentrations in methanol: water extraction methods. All other legends and abbreviations are as same as Fig. S1. Fig. S7 PCA a) score plots and b) loading plots of metabolites concentrations in Mozuku samples. All other legends and abbreviations are as same as Fig. S1. Fig. S8 PCA a) score plots and b) loading plots of metabolites concentrations in Kombu. All other legends and abbreviations are as same as Fig. S1. Fig. S9 PCA a) score plots and b) loading plots of metabolites concentrations in Wakame. All other legends and abbreviations are as same as Fig. S1. (PDF 5908 kb)
10811_2018_1614_MOESM2_ESM.xlsx (120 kb)
ESM 2 (XLSX 119 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Keio UniversityInstitute for Advanced BiosciencesTsuruokaJapan
  2. 2.Systems Biology Program, Graduate School of Media and GovernanceKeio UniversityFujisawaJapan

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