Advertisement

Parental Emotion Socialization and Adult Outcomes: The Relationships Between Parental Supportiveness, Emotion Regulation, and Trait Anxiety

  • Sarah Cabecinha-Alati
  • Gabrielle O’Hara
  • Heather KennedyEmail author
  • Tina Montreuil
Article
  • 77 Downloads

Abstract

Despite the burgeoning interest in the relationships between parental emotion socialization practices, emotion regulation (ER), and anxiety in youth, there is considerably less research focusing on the ways in which parental emotion socialization in childhood is associated with these variables in adulthood. A sample of 202 university students completed an online survey, which aimed to examine the relationships between retrospective reports of parental emotion socialization strategies in childhood, ER in adulthood, and trait anxiety. Adult perceptions of their parents’ use of unsupportive emotion socialization strategies in childhood was related to lower levels of ER skills and greater use of maladaptive ER strategies in adulthood, while perceptions of parents’ use of supportive strategies were related to higher levels of ER skills and greater use of adaptive ER strategies. Together, adult perceptions of unsupportive parental emotion socialization strategies in childhood and their ER skills and ER strategy use in adulthood predicted trait anxiety.

Keywords

Emotion socialization Emotion regulation Trait anxiety 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was supported by a Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada Insight Development Grant awarded to Dr. Tina Montreuil. Ms. Cabecinha-Alati and Ms. O’Hara are both supported by a Master’s and Doctoral Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council Scholarships. Ms. Heather Kennedy was supported by a Canadian Institutes of Health Research Master’s Scholarship.

Funding

No funding agencies were involved in any decisions pertaining to this study.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

There are no conflicts of interest to disclose.

References

  1. Arnett, J. J. (2000). Emerging adulthood: A theory of development from the late teens through the twenties. American Psychologist, 55(5), 469.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.55.5.469.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Arnett, J. J. (2004). Emerging adulthood: The winding road from the late teens through the twenties. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Arnett, J. J. (2007a). Emerging adulthood: What is it, and what is it good for? Child Development Perspectives, 1(2), 68–73.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-8606.2007.00016.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arnett, J. J. (2007b). Socialization in emerging adulthood: From the family to the wider world, from socialization to self-socialization. In J. Grusec & P. Hastings (Eds.), Handbook of socialization (pp. 208–231). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  5. Berking, M., Poppe, C., Luhmann, M., Wupperman, P., Jaggi, V., & Seifritz, E. (2012). Is the association between various emotion-regulation skills and mental health mediated by the ability to modify emotions? Results from two cross-sectional studies. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 43(3), 931–937.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbtep.2011.09.009.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Berking, M., Wirtz, C. M., Svaldi, J., & Hofmann, S. G. (2014). Emotion regulation predicts symptoms of depression over five years. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 57, 13–20.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2014.03.003.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Berking, M., & Znoj, H. (2008). Entwicklung und Validierung eines Fragebogens zur standardisierten Selbsteinscha ̈tzung emotionaler Kompetenzen. [Development and validation of a self-report measure for the assessment of emotion-regulation skills]. Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 56, 141–152.  https://doi.org/10.1024/1661-4747.56.2.141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Blair, B. L., Perry, N. B., O’Brien, M., Calkins, S. D., Keane, S. P., & Shanahan, L. (2014). The indirect effects of maternal emotion socialization on friendship quality in middle childhood. Developmental Psychology, 50, 566–576.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0033532.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Briscoe, C., Stack, D. M., Dickson, D. J., & Serbin, L. A. (2019). Maternal emotion socialization mediates the relationship between maternal and adolescent negative emotionality. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 48(3), 495–509.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-018-0945-z.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Cacioppo, J. T., Berntson, G. G., Larsen, J. T., Poehlmann, K. M., & Ito, T. A. (2000). The psychophysiology of emotion. In M. Lewis & J. M. Haviland-Jones (Eds.), Handbook of emotions (pp. 173–191). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  11. Carthy, T., Horesh, N., Apter, A., Edge, M. D., & Gross, J. J. (2010). Emotional reactivity and cognitive regulation in anxious children. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 48(5), 384–393.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2009.12.013.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. D’Avanzato, C., Joormann, J., Siemer, M., & Gotlib, I. H. (2013). Emotion regulation in depression and anxiety: Examining diagnostic specificity and stability of strategy use. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 37(5), 968–980.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-013-9537-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Denham, S. A., Blair, K. A., DeMulder, E., Levitas, J., Sawyer, K., Auerbach-Major, S., et al. (2003). Preschool emotional competence: Pathway to social competence? Child Development, 74(1), 238–256.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00533.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Denham, S. A., Mitchell-Copeland, J., Strandberg, K., Auerbach, S., & Blair, K. (1997). Parental contributions to preschoolers’ emotional competence: Direct and indirect effects. Motivation and Emotion, 21(1), 65–86.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1024426431247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dennis, T. A. (2007). Interactions between emotion regulation strategies and affective style: Implications for trait anxiety versus depressed mood. Motivation and Emotion, 31(3), 200–207.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11031-007-9069-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Eisenberg, N., Cumberland, A., & Spinrad, T. L. (1998). Parental socialization of emotion. Psychological Inquiry, 9(4), 241–273.  https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327965pli0904_1.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., & Murphy, B. C. (1996). Parents’ reactions to children’s negative emotions: Relations to children’s social competence and comforting behavior. Child Development, 67(5), 2227–2247.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.1996.tb01854.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Eisenberg, N., Valiente, C., Morris, A. S., Fabes, R. A., Cumberland, A., Reiser, M., et al. (2003). Longitudinal relations among parental emotional expressivity, children’s regulation, and quality of socioemotional functioning. Developmental Psychology, 39, 3–19.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.39.1.3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Fabes, R. A., Poulin, R. E., Eisenberg, N., & Madden-Derdich, D. A. (2002). The Coping with Children’s Negative Emotions Scale (CCNES): Psychometric properties and relations with children’s emotional competence. Marriage & Family Review, 34(3–4), 285–310.  https://doi.org/10.1300/J002v34n03_05.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Garside, R. B., & Klimes-Dougan, B. (2002). Socialization of discrete negative emotions: Gender differences and links with psychological distress. Sex Roles, 47(3), 115–128.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1021090904785.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. George, D., & Mallery, P. (2010). SPSS for windows step by step: A simple guide and reference, 17.0 update. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  22. Gidron, Y. (2013). Trait anxiety. In M. Gellman & R. Turner (Eds.), Encyclopedia of behavioral medicine. 1989. New York: Springer Science and Business Media.Google Scholar
  23. Goldsmith, H. H., & Lemery, K. S. (2000). Linking temperamental fearfulness and anxiety symptoms: A behavior–genetic perspective. Biological Psychiatry, 48(12), 1199–1209.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3223(00)01003-9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Gottman, J., Katz, L., & Hooven, C. (1997). Meta-emotion: How families communicate emotionally. Mawhaw, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  25. Grös, D. F., Antony, M. M., Simms, L. J., & McCabe, R. E. (2007). Psychometric properties of the state-trait inventory for cognitive and somatic anxiety (STICSA): Comparison to the state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI). Psychological Assessment, 19(4), 369–381.  https://doi.org/10.1037/1040-3590.19.4.369.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Gross, J. J. (1998a). The emerging field of emotion regulation: An integrative review. Review of General Psychology, 2(3), 271–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gross, J. J. (1998b). Antecedent-and response-focused emotion regulation: Divergent consequences for experience, expression, and physiology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74(1), 224–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gross, J. J., & John, O. P. (2003). Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: Implications for affect, relationships, and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85(2), 348–362.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.85.2.348.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Gullone, E., & Taffe, J. (2012). The emotion regulation questionnaire for children and adolescents (ERQ–CA): A psychometric evaluation. Psychological Assessment, 24(2), 409–418.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0025777.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Gunzenhauser, C., Fäsche, A., Friedlmeier, W., & von Suchodoletz, A. (2014). Face it or hide it: Parental socialization of reappraisal and response suppression. Frontiers in Psychology, 4, 992–1006.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00992.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. Guo, J., Mrug, S., & Knight, D. C. (2016). Factor structure of the emotions as a child scale in late adolescence and emerging adulthood. Psychological Assessment.  https://doi.org/10.1037/pas0000412.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. Haga, S. M., Kraft, P., & Corby, E. K. (2009). Emotion regulation: Antecedents and well-being outcomes of cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression in cross-cultural samples. Journal of Happiness Studies, 10(3), 271–291.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-007-9080-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Huang, J. L., Curran, P. G., Keeney, K., Poposki, E. M., & De Son, R. P. (2012). Detecting and deterring insufficient effort responding to surveys. Journal of Business and Psychology, 27(1), 99–114.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10869-011-9231-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hughes, E. K., Gullone, E., Dudley, A., & Tonge, B. (2010). A case-control study of emotion regulation and school refusal in children and adolescents. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 30(5), 691–706.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0272431609341049.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hurrell, K. E., Hudson, J. L., & Schniering, C. A. (2015). Parental reactions to children’s negative emotions: Relationships with emotion regulation in children with an anxiety disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 29, 72–82.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2014.10.008.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. John, O. P., & Gross, J. J. (2004). Healthy and unhealthy emotion regulation: Personality processes, individual differences, and life span development. Journal of Personality, 72(6), 1301–1334.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.2004.00298.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Jones, S., Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., & MacKinnon, D. P. (2002). Parents’ reactions to elementary school children’s negative emotions: Relations to social and emotional functioning at school. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 48(2), 133–159.  https://doi.org/10.1353/mpq.2002.0007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kane, L., & Ashbaugh, A. R. (2017). Simple and parallel mediation: A tutorial exploring anxiety sensitivity, sensation seeking, and gender. The Quantitative Methods for Psychology, 12(4), 148–165.  https://doi.org/10.20982/tqmp.13.3.p148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kehoe, C. E., Havighurst, S. S., & Harley, A. E. (2014). Tuning into teens: Improving parent emotion socialization to reduce youth internalizing difficulties. Social Development, 23(2), 413–431.  https://doi.org/10.1111/sode.12060.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kerns, K. A. (2008). Attachment in middle childhood. In J. Cassidy & P. R. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications (2nd ed., pp. 366–382). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  41. Klimes-Dougan, B., Brand, A. E., Zahn-Waxler, C., Usher, B., Hastings, P. D., Kendziora, K., et al. (2007). Parental emotion socialization in adolescence: Differences in sex, age and problem status. Social Development, 16(2), 326–342.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9507.2007.00387.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kopp, C. B. (1989). Regulation of distress and negative emotions: A developmental view. Developmental Psychology, 25(3), 343–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lau, J. Y., Eley, T. C., & Stevenson, J. (2006). Examining the state-trait anxiety relationship: A behavioural genetic approach. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 34(1), 19–27.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-005-9006-7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Leen-Feldner, E. W., Zvolensky, M. J., & Feldner, M. T. (2004). Behavioral inhibition sensitivity and emotional response suppression: A laboratory test among adolescents in a fear-relevant paradigm. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33, 783–791.  https://doi.org/10.1207/s15374424jccp3304_13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Leerkes, E. M., Supple, A. J., & Gudmunson, J. A. (2014). Ethnic differences in women’s emotional reactions to parental nonsupportive emotion socialization. Marriage & Family Review, 50(5), 435–446.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01494929.2014.897671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Leerkes, E. M., Supple, A. J., Su, J., & Cavanaugh, A. M. (2015). Links between remembered childhood emotion socialization and adult adjustment: Similarities and differences between European American and African American women. Journal of Family Issues, 36(13), 1854–1877.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0192513X13505567.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Lugo-Candelas, C. I., Harvey, E. A., Breaux, R. P., & Herbert, S. D. (2015). Ethnic differences in the relation between parental emotion socialization and mental health in emerging adults. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 25(3), 922–938.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-015-0266-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lunkenheimer, E. S., Shields, A. M., & Cortina, K. S. (2007). Parental emotion coaching and dismissing in family interaction. Social Development, 16(2), 232–248.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9507.2007.00382.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Magai, C., & O’Neal, C. R. (1997). Emotions as a child (child version). Unpublished manuscript, Long Island University, Brooklyn.Google Scholar
  50. McKee, L. G., Duprey, E. B., & O’Neal, C. W. (2019). Emotion socialization and young adult internalizing symptoms: The roles of mindfulness and emotion regulation. Mindfulness.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-018-1079-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Montreuil, T., & Kimhy, D. (2015). Emotion awareness and regulation as a predictor for increased risk of mental illness in children and adolescents: A systematic review of literature. Quebec City, QC, Canada: Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (CACAP).Google Scholar
  52. Moore, S. A., Zoellner, L. A., & Mollenholt, N. (2008). Are expressive suppression and cognitive reappraisal associated with stress-related symptoms? Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46(9), 993–1000.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2008.05.001.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. Morris, A. S., Silk, J. S., Steinberg, L., Myers, S. S., & Robinson, L. R. (2007). The role of the family context in the development of emotion regulation. Social Development, 16(2), 361–388.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9507.2007.00389.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. O’Neal, C. R., & Magai, C. (2005). Do parents respond in different ways when children feel different emotions? The emotional context of parenting. Development and Psychopathology, 17(02), 467–487.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579405050224.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Pahl, K. M., Barrett, P. M., & Gullo, M. J. (2012). Examining potential risk factors for anxiety in early childhood. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 26, 311–320.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2011.12.013.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Perry, N. B., Leerkes, E. M., Dunbar, A. S., & Cavanaugh, A. M. (2017). Gender and ethnic differences in young adults’ emotional reactions to parental punitive and minimizing emotion socialization practices. Emerging Adulthood, 5(2), 83–92.  https://doi.org/10.1177/2167696816653856.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Ree, M. J., French, D., MacLeod, C., & Locke, V. (2008). Distinguishing cognitive and somatic dimensions of state and trait anxiety: Development and validation of the state-trait inventory for cognitive and somatic anxiety (STICSA). Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 36, 313–332.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S1352465808004232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Saarni, C. (1990). Emotion competence: How emotions and relationships become integrated. In R. A. Thompson (Ed.), Nebraska symposium on motivation (Vol. 36, pp. 115–182)., Socioemotional development Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  59. Saarni, C. (1999). The development of emotional competence. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  60. Sanders, W., Zeman, J., Poon, J., & Miller, R. (2015). Child regulation of negative emotions and depressive symptoms: The moderating role of parental emotion socialization. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24(2), 402–415.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-013-9850-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Shaffer, A., Suveg, C., Thomassin, K., & Bradbury, L. L. (2012). Emotion socialization in the context of family risks: Links to child emotion regulation. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 21(6), 917–924.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-011-9551-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Skibbe, L. E., Connor, C. M., Morrison, F. J., & Jewkes, A. M. (2013). Schooling effects on preschoolers’ self-regulation, early literacy, and language growth. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 26(1), 42–49.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq2010.05.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Southam-Gerow, M. A., & Kendall, P. C. (2000). A preliminary study of the emotion understanding of youth referred for treatment of anxiety disorders. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 29, 319–327.  https://doi.org/10.1207/S15374424JCCP2903_3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Suveg, C., Sood, E., Barmish, A., Tiwari, S., Hudson, J. L., & Kendall, P. C. (2008). “ I’d rather not talk about it”: Emotion parenting in families of children with an anxiety disorder. Journal of Family Psychology, 22(6), 875–884.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0012861.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. Suveg, C., & Zeman, J. (2004). Emotion regulation in children with anxiety disorders. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33(4), 750–759.  https://doi.org/10.1207/s15374424jccp3304_10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Thompson, R. A. (1994). Emotion regulation: A theme in search of definition. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59(2–3), 25–52.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5834.1994.tb01276.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Williams, S. R., & Woodruff-Borden, J. (2015). Parent emotion socialization practices and child self-regulation as predictors of child anxiety: The mediating role of cardiac variability. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 46(4), 512–522.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-014-0492-0.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Wirtz, C. M., Hofmann, S. G., Riper, H., & Berking, M. (2014). Emotion regulation predicts anxiety over a five-year interval: A cross-lagged panel analysis. Depression and anxiety, 31(1), 87–95.  https://doi.org/10.1002/da.22198.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Zeman, J., Shipman, K., & Suveg, C. (2002). Anger and sadness regulation: Predictions to internalizing and externalizing symptoms in children. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 31(3), 393–398.  https://doi.org/10.1207/S15374424JCCP3103_11.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Educational and Counselling Psychology, Faculty of EducationMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada
  2. 2.Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of MedicineMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada

Personalised recommendations