Advertisement

Brief Report: A Pilot Online Pivotal Response Treatment Training Program for Parents of Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder

  • Elizabeth McGarryEmail author
  • Ty Vernon
  • Anisha Baktha
Brief Report

Abstract

Despite advances in evidence-based treatment for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), disparities in service access remain a serious concern. Current treatment models may not be feasible for families who live in remote geographical regions or have limited resources. To address this, studies have begun to explore parent-implemented interventions via an online format. The current study examined a new online course designed to help parents implement Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) for their toddler with ASD. Parents submitted videos of parent–child interactions which were coded for fidelity of implementation (FOI) and social communicative behaviors. The data indicate that PRT fidelity and child behaviors significantly improved following course participation. This suggests that an online intervention may be a feasible approach to disseminating PRT strategies.

Keywords

Autism spectrum disorder Parent-implemented intervention Pivotal response treatment Online training Telehealth 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to acknowledge all of the families who participated in this research, along with all of the research assistants that made this project possible.

Author Contributions

EM and TV jointly developed the online PRT training program. AB served as a lead research assistant on this project and assisted with data input, organization, and analysis. All authors contributed to the manuscript drafting and revision process.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

References

  1. Antezana, L., Scarpa, A., Valdespino, A., Albright, J., & Richey, J. A. (2017). Rural trends in diagnosis and services for autism spectrum disorder. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 1–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bearss, K., Burrell, T. L., Challa, S. A., Postorino, V., Gillespie, S. E., Crooks, C., et al. (2017). Feasibility of parent training via telehealth for children with autism spectrum disorder and disruptive behavior: A demonstration pilot. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-017-3363-2.Google Scholar
  3. Bradshaw, J., Koegel, L. K., & Koegel, R. L. (2017). Improving functional language and social motivation with a parent-mediated intervention for toddlers with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 47, 2443–2458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Constantino, J. N., & Gruber, C. P. (2012). Social responsiveness scale-second edition (SRS-2). Torrance, CA: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  5. Dawson, G., & Bernier, R. (2013). A quarter century of progress on the early detection and treatment of autism spectrum disorder. Development and Psychopathology, 25, 1455–1472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Eysenbach, G. (2005). The law of attrition. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 7(1), 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hardan, A. Y., Gengoux, G. W., Berquist, K. L., Libove, R. A., Ardel, C. M., Phillips, J., et al. (2015). A randomized controlled trial of Pivotal Response Treatment Group for parents of children with autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 56(8), 884–892.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Heidgerken, A. D., Geffken, G., Modi, A., & Frakey, L. (2005). A survey of autism knowledge in a health care setting. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 35(3), 323–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ingersoll, B., Wainer, A. L., Berger, N. I., Pickard, K. E., & Bonter, N. (2016). Comparison of a self-directed and therapist-assisted telehealth parent-mediated intervention for children with ASD: A pilot RCT. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 46, 2275–2284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee. (2014). IACC strategic plan for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) research- 2013 Update. Retrieved from http://iacc.hhs.gov/strategic-plan/2013/index.shtml
  11. Johnson, E., & Hastings, R. P. (2002). Facilitating factors and barriers to the implementation of intensive home-based behavioural intervention for young children with autism. Child, 28(2), 123–129.Google Scholar
  12. Kelley, E., Naigles, L., & Fein, D. (2010). An in-depth examination of optimal outcome children with a history of autism spectrum disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 4, 526–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Koegel, R., & Koegel, L. (2012). The PRT pocket guide: Pivotal response treatment for autism spectrum disorders. Baltimore: Paul H. Brooks Publishing Co.Google Scholar
  14. Koegel, R. L., Bimbela, A., & Schreibman, L. J. (1996). Collateral effects of parent training on family interactions. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 26(3), 347–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Koegel, R. L., Vernon, T. W., & Koegel, L. K. (2009). Improving social initiations in young children with autism using reinforcers with embedded social interactions. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39, 1240–1251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lindgren, S., Wacker, D., Suess, A., et al. (2016). Telehealth and autism: Treating challenging behavior at lower cost. Pediatrics, 137(S2), S169–S175.Google Scholar
  17. Liptak, G. S., Benzoni, L. B., Mruzek, D. W., Nolan, K., Thingvoll, M. A., et al. (2008). Disparities in diagnosis and access to health services for children with autism: Data from the National Survey of Children’s Health. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 29(3), 152–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Mandell, D. S., Listerud, J., Levy, S. E., & Pinto-Martin, J. A. (2002). Race differences in the age at diagnosis among Medicaid-eligible children with autism. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 41(12), 1447–1453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. McIntyre, L. L., & Barton, E. E. (2010). Early childhood autism services: How wide is the research to practice divide? Behavioral Development Bulletin, 16(1), 34–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mello, M. P., Goldman, S. E., Urbano, R. C., & Hodapp, R. M. (2016). Services for children with autism spectrum disorder: Comparing rural and non-rural communities. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 51(4), 355–365.Google Scholar
  21. Minjarez, M. B., Mercier, E. M., Williams, S. E., & Hardan, A. Y. (2012). Impact of pivotal response training group therapy on stress and empowerment in parents of children with autism. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 15(2), 71–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Nefdt, N., Koegel, R., Singer, G., & Gerber, M. (2009). The use of a self-directed learning program to provide introductory training in pivotal response treatment to parents of children with autism. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12(1), 23–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Nelson, E., Bui, T. N., & Velasquez, S. E. (2011). Telepsychology: Research and practice overview. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 20(1), 67–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Parsons, D., Cordier, R., Vaz, S., & Lee, H. C. (2017). Parent-mediated intervention training delivered remotely for children with autism spectrum disorder living outside of urban areas: Systematic review. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 19(8), e198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ritterband, L. M., Gonder-Frederick, L. A., Cox, D. J., Clifton, A. D., West, R. W., & Borowitz, S. (2003). Internet interventions: In review, in use and into the future. Professional Psychology, 34(5), 527–534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Schreibman, L., Dawson, G., Stahmer, A. C., Landa, R., Rogers, S. J., McGee, G. G., et al. (2015). Naturalistic developmental behavioral interventions: Empirically validated treatments for autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45, 2411–2428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Stahmer, A. C., Collings, N. M., & Palinkas, L. A. (2005). Early intervention practices for children with autism: Descriptions from community providers. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 20(2), 66–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Thomas, K. C., Ellis, A. R., McLaurin, C., Daniels, J., & Morrissey, J. P. (2007). Access to care for autism-related services. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37(10), 1902–1912.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Vernon, T. W., Koegel, R. L., Dauterman, H., & Stolen, K. (2012). An early social engagement intervention for children with autism and their parents. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42(12), 2702–2717.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Vismara, L. A., McCormick, C., Young, G. S., Nadhan, A., & Monlux, K. (2013). Preliminary findings of a telehealth approach to parent training in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43, 2953–2969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Vismara, L. A., Young, G. S., & Rogers, S. J. (2012). Telehealth for expanding the reach of early autism training to parents. Autism Research and Treatment, 2012, 121878.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Wacker, D. P., Lee, J. F., Padilla Dalmau, Y. C., Kopelman, T. G., Lindgren, S. D., Kuhle, J., et al. (2012). Conducting functional communication training via telehealth to reduce the problem behavior of young children with autism. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 25, 35–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wainer, A. L., Hepburn, S., & Griffith, E. M. (2017). Remembering parents in parent-mediated early intervention: An approach to examining impact on parents and families. Autism, 21(1), 5–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wainer, A. L., & Ingersoll, B. R. (2015). Increasing access to an ASD imitation intervention via a telehealth parent training program. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45, 3877–3890.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. West, E., Travers, J., Kemper, T. D., Liberty, L. M., Cote, D. L., McCollow, M. M., et al. (2016). Racial and ethnic diversity of participants in research supporting evidence-based practices for learners with autism spectrum disorder. The Journal of Special Education, 50(3), 151–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Koegel Autism Center, Department of Counseling, Clinical, and School Psychology, Gevirtz Graduate School of EducationUniversity of California Santa BarbaraSanta BarbaraUSA

Personalised recommendations