Advertisement

Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

, Volume 49, Issue 8, pp 3203–3217 | Cite as

Responsive Parenting and Prospective Social Skills Development in Early School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

  • Barbara CaplanEmail author
  • Jan Blacher
  • Abbey Eisenhower
Original Paper

Abstract

Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) vary greatly in social functioning, and in turn, long-term relational and academic outcomes. Responsive parenting which follows a child’s lead and focus of attention is predictive of language and social gains for children with or without developmental risk. The present study prospectively assessed 176 families of children with ASD (ages 4 to 7 years) to examine predictors of observed responsive parenting and associations of responsive parenting with concurrent and prospective growth in social functioning by multi-method assessment. Responsive parenting concurrently associated with child characteristics (IQ, language, sex) and child social engagement within the interaction. Structural equation models revealed that responsive parenting positively predicted prospective growth in social skills by teacher but not parent report.

Keywords

Parenting Responsivity Social skills Autism spectrum disorder 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This paper was derived from a longitudinal project funded by the Institute of Education Sciences (R324A110086; J. Blacher, P.I.). Support was also provided by the SEARCH Family Autism Resource Center in the Graduate School of Education, UC Riverside. We are indebted to our colleagues and students as well as the children, parents, and teachers who participated in this research.

Author Contributions

BC conceived of the study, coordinated all coding efforts, designed and conducted statistical analyses and drafted the manuscript; JB and AE led all data collection efforts, provided constructive feedback regarding the study design and interpretation of the results. All authors reviewed and helped to revise the manuscript, and approved the final product.

Funding

This project was funded by the Institute of Education Sciences (R324A110086; J. Blacher, P.I.). Support was also provided by the SEARCH Family Autism Resource Center in the Graduate School of Education, UC Riverside.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in this study.

Research Involving Human Participants/Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional review board of the University and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Supplementary material

10803_2019_4039_MOESM1_ESM.docx (118 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 118 kb)

References

  1. Bauminger, N., & Kasari, C. (2000). Loneliness and friendship in high-functioning children with autism. Child Development, 71(2), 447–456.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00156.Google Scholar
  2. Blacher, J., Baker, B. L., & Kaladjian, A. (2012). Syndrome specificity and mother–child interactions: Examining positive and negative parenting across contexts and time. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43(4), 761–774.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-012-1605-x.Google Scholar
  3. Bornstein, M. H., & Bradley, R. H. (2012). Socioeconomic status, parenting, and child development. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  4. Bornstein, M. H., & Tamis-LeMonda, C. S. (1989). Maternal responsiveness and cognitive development in children. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 1989(43), 49–61.  https://doi.org/10.1002/cd.23219894306.Google Scholar
  5. Bornstein, M. H., Tamis-LeMonda, C. S., & Haynes, O. M. (1999). First words in the second year: Continuity, stability, and models of concurrent and predictive correspondence in vocabulary and verbal responsiveness across age and context. Infant Behavior and Development, 22(1), 65–85.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0163-6383(99)80006-X.Google Scholar
  6. Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and loss. Attachment (Vol. 1). New York, NY: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  7. Caplan, B., Feldman, M., Eisenhower, A., & Blacher, J. (2016). Student–teacher relationships for young children with autism spectrum disorder: Risk and protective factors. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 46(12), 3653–3666.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-016-2915-1.Google Scholar
  8. Carrow-Woolfolk, E. (1999). Comprehensive assessment of spoken language. MN: American Guidance Services.Google Scholar
  9. Carter, A. S., Davis, N. O., Klin, A., & Volkmar, F. R. (2005). Social development in autism. In F. R. Volkmar, R. Paul, A. Klin, & D. Cohen (Eds.), Handbook of autism and pervasive developmental disorders (pp. 312–334). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  10. Carter, A. S., Messinger, D. S., Stone, W. L., Celimli, S., Nahmias, A. S., & Yoder, P. (2011). A randomized controlled trial of Hanen’s ‘More Than Words’ in toddlers with early autism symptoms. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52(7), 741–752.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2011.02395.x.Google Scholar
  11. Cassidy, J., & Shaver, P. (2016). Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications (Third). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  12. Constantino, J. N., Davis, S. A., Todd, R. D., Schindler, M. K., Gross, M. M., Brophy, S. L., et al. (2003). Validation of a brief quantitative measure of autistic traits: Comparison of the social responsiveness scale with the autism diagnostic interview-revised. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 33(4), 427–433.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1025014929212.Google Scholar
  13. Dallaire, D. H., & Weinraub, M. (2005). The stability of parenting behaviors over the first 6 years of life. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 20(2), 201–219.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2005.04.008.Google Scholar
  14. Davis, N. O., & Carter, A. S. (2008). Parenting stress in mothers and fathers of toddlers with autism spectrum disorders: Associations with child characteristics. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38(7), 1278–1291.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-007-0512-z.Google Scholar
  15. Enders, C. K., & Bandalos, D. L. (2001). The relative performance of full information maximum likelihood estimation for missing data in structural equation models. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 8(3), 430–457.  https://doi.org/10.1207/S15328007SEM0803_5.Google Scholar
  16. Eshel, N., Daelmans, B., de Mello, M. C., & Martines, J. (2006). Responsive parenting: Interventions and outcomes. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 84(12), 991–998.  https://doi.org/10.1590/S0042-96862006001200016.Google Scholar
  17. Fenning, R. M., Baker, J. K., Baker, B. L., & Crnic, K. A. (2014). Parent-child interaction over time in families of young children with borderline intellectual functioning. Journal of Family Psychology, 28(3), 326–335.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0036537.Google Scholar
  18. Flynn, V., & Masur, E. F. (2007). Characteristics of maternal verbal style: Responsiveness and directiveness in two natural contexts. Journal of Child Language, 34(03), 519–543.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S030500090700801X.Google Scholar
  19. Fombonne, E. (2003). Modern views of autism. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 48(8), 503–505.  https://doi.org/10.1177/070674370304800801.Google Scholar
  20. Girolametto, L., Weitzman, E., Wiigs, M., & Pearce, P. S. (1999). The relationship between maternal language measures and language development in toddlers with expressive vocabulary delays. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 8(4), 364–374.  https://doi.org/10.1044/1058-0360.0804.364.Google Scholar
  21. Gotham, K., Risi, S., Dawson, G., Tager-Flusberg, H., Joseph, R., Carter, A., et al. (2008). A replication of the autism diagnostic observation schedule (ADOS) revised algorithms. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 47(6), 642–651.  https://doi.org/10.1097/CHI.0b013e31816bffb7.Google Scholar
  22. Green, S., Caplan, B., & Baker, B. (2014). Maternal supportive and interfering control as predictors of adaptive and social development in children with and without developmental delays. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 58(8), 691–703.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jir.12064.Google Scholar
  23. Gresham, F., & Elliott, S. N. (2008). Social skills improvement system (SSIS): Rating scales. Bloomington, MN: Pearson Inc.Google Scholar
  24. Gresham, F. M., Elliott, S. N., Cook, C. R., Vance, M. J., & Kettler, R. (2010). Cross-informant agreement for ratings for social skill and problem behavior ratings: An investigation of the social skills improvement system—rating scales. Psychological Assessment, 22(1), 157–166.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0018124.Google Scholar
  25. Haebig, E., McDuffie, A., & Ellis Weismer, S. (2013a). Brief report: parent verbal responsiveness and language development in toddlers on the autism spectrum. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43(9), 2218–2227.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-013-1763-5.Google Scholar
  26. Haebig, E., McDuffie, A., & Weismer, S. E. (2013b). The contribution of two categories of parent verbal responsiveness to later language for toddlers and preschoolers on the autism spectrum. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 22(1), 57–70.  https://doi.org/10.1044/1058-0360(2012/11-0004).Google Scholar
  27. Hallgren, K. A. (2012). Computing inter-rater reliability for observational data: An overview and tutorial. Tutorials in Quantitative Methods for Psychology, 8(1), 23–34.Google Scholar
  28. Harker, C. M., Ibañez, L. V., Nguyen, T. P., Messinger, D. S., & Stone, W. L. (2016). The effect of parenting style on social smiling in infants at high and low risk for ASD. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 46(7), 2399–2407.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-016-2772-y.Google Scholar
  29. Howlin, P. (2000). Outcome in adult life for more able individuals with autism or Asperger syndrome. Autism, 4(1), 63–83.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1362361300004001005.Google Scholar
  30. Hu, L., & Bentler, P. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1–55.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10705519909540118.Google Scholar
  31. Hubbs-Tait, L., Culp, A. M., Culp, R. E., & Miller, C. E. (2002). Relation of maternal cognitive stimulation, emotional support, and intrusive behavior during Head Start to children’s kindergarten cognitive abilities. Child Development, 73(1), 110–131.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00395.Google Scholar
  32. Hurwitz, S., & Yirmiya, N. (2014). Autism diagnostic observation schedule (ADOS) and its uses in research and practice. In V. B. Patel, V. R. Preedy, & C. R. Martin (Eds.), Comprehensive guide to autism (pp. 345–353).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-4788-7_16.Google Scholar
  33. Jepsen, M. I., Gray, K. M., & Taffe, J. R. (2012). Agreement in multi-informant assessment of behaviour and emotional problems and social functioning in adolescents with autistic and Asperger’s disorder. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 6(3), 1091–1098.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2012.02.008.Google Scholar
  34. Jeste, S. S., & Geschwind, D. H. (2014). Disentangling the heterogeneity of autism spectrum disorder through genetic findings. Nature Reviews Neurology, 10(2), 74–81.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nrneurol.2013.278.Google Scholar
  35. Joseph, R. M., Tager-Flusberg, H., & Lord, C. (2002). Cognitive profiles and social-communicative functioning in children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 43(6), 807–821.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1469-7610.00092.Google Scholar
  36. Kasari, C., Dean, M., Kretzmann, M., Shih, W., Orlich, F., Whitney, R., et al. (2016). Children with autism spectrum disorder and social skills groups at school: A randomized trial comparing intervention approach and peer composition. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 57(2), 171–179.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12460.Google Scholar
  37. Krull, J. L., & Arruda, E. H. (2015). Growth curve modeling. In R. L. Cautin & S. O. Lilienfeld (Eds.), The encyclopedia of clinical psychology. Hobeken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc.Google Scholar
  38. Landry, S. H., Smith, K. E., Miller-Loncar, C. L., & Swank, P. R. (1998). The relation of change in maternal interactive styles to the developing social competence of full-term and preterm children. Child Development, 69(1), 105–123.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.1998.tb06137.x.Google Scholar
  39. Landry, S. H., Smith, K. E., Swank, P. R., & Miller-Loncar, C. L. (2000). Early maternal and child Influences on children’s later independent cognitive and social functioning. Child Development, 71(2), 358–375.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00150.Google Scholar
  40. Landry, S. H., Smith, K. E., Swank, P. R., Assel, M. A., & Vellet, S. (2001). Does early responsive parenting have a special importance for children’s development or is consistency across early childhood necessary? Developmental Psychology, 37(3), 387–403.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.37.3.387.Google Scholar
  41. Landry, S. H., Smith, K. E., & Swank, P. R. (2006). Responsive parenting: Establishing early foundations for social, communication, and independent problem-solving skills. Developmental Psychology, 42(4), 627–642.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.42.4.627.Google Scholar
  42. LoBello, S. G. (1991). A short form of the wechsler preschool and primary scale of intelligence-revised. Journal of School Psychology, 29(3), 229–236.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-4405(91)90004-B.Google Scholar
  43. Locke, J., Ishijima, E. H., Kasari, C., & London, N. (2010). Loneliness, friendship quality and the social networks of adolescents with high-functioning autism in an inclusive school setting. Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, 10(2), 74–81.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-3802.2010.01148.x.Google Scholar
  44. Lord, C., Risi, S., Lambrecht, L., Jr., Cook, E. H., Leventhal, B. L., DiLavore, P. C., et al. (2000). The autism diagnostic observation schedule—generic: A standard measure of social and communication deficits associated with the spectrum of autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30(3), 205–223.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1005592401947.Google Scholar
  45. Mahoney, G., & Nam, S. (2011). The parenting model of developmental intervention. In R. M. Hodapp (Ed.), International review of research in developmental disabilities. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Inc.Google Scholar
  46. Marfo, K. (1992). Correlates of maternal directiveness with children who are developmentally delayed. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 62(2), 219–233.  https://doi.org/10.1037/h0079334.Google Scholar
  47. Masur, E. F., Flynn, V., & Eichorst, D. L. (2005). Maternal responsive and directive behaviours and utterances as predictors of children’s lexical development. Journal of Child Language, 32(1), 63–91.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0305000904006634.Google Scholar
  48. McCathren, R. B., Yoder, P., & Warren, S. F. (1995). The role of directives in early language intervention. Journal of Early Intervention, 19(2), 91–101.  https://doi.org/10.1177/105381519501900201.Google Scholar
  49. McDuffie, A., & Yoder, P. (2010). Types of parent verbal responsiveness that predict language in young children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 53(4), 1026–1039.  https://doi.org/10.1044/1092-4388(2009/09-0023).Google Scholar
  50. Mesman, J., & Emmen, R. A. G. (2013). Mary Ainsworth’s legacy: A systematic review of observational instruments measuring parental sensitivity. Attachment & Human Development, 15(5–6), 485–506.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14616734.2013.820900.Google Scholar
  51. Murray, D. S., Ruble, L. A., Willis, H., & Molloy, C. A. (2009). Parent and teacher report of social skills in children with autism spectrum disorders. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 40(2), 109–115.  https://doi.org/10.1044/0161-1461(2008/07-0089).Google Scholar
  52. Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2017). MPlus user’s guide (Eight ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.Google Scholar
  53. Patterson, S. Y., Elder, L., Gulsrud, A., & Kasari, C. (2014). The association between parental interaction style and children’s joint engagement in families with toddlers with autism. Autism, 18(5), 511–518.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1362361313483595.Google Scholar
  54. Rice, M. L., & Warren, S. F. (2004). Developmental language disorders: From phenotypes to etiologies. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.Google Scholar
  55. Rubenstein, E., Wiggins, L. D., & Lee, L. C. (2015). A review of the differences in developmental, psychiatric, and medical endophenotypes between males and females with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 27(1), 119–139.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10882-014-9397-x.Google Scholar
  56. Ruble, L., McDuffie, A., King, A. S., & Lorenz, D. (2008). Caregiver responsiveness and social interaction behaviors of young children with autism. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 28(3), 158–170.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0271121408323009.Google Scholar
  57. Rutter, M., LeCouteur, A., & Lord, C. (2003). Autism diagnostic interview™. Western Psychological Services: Revised.Google Scholar
  58. Rynkiewicz, A., Schuller, B., Marchi, E., Piana, S., Camurri, A., Lassalle, A., et al. (2016). An investigation of the ‘female camouflage effect’ in autism using a computerized ADOS-2 and a test of sex/gender differences. Molecular Autism, 7(10), 1–8.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13229-016-0073-0.Google Scholar
  59. Sameroff, A. (2009). The transactional model. In A. Sameroff (Ed.), The transactional model of development: How children and contexts shape each other (pp. 3–21). Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  60. Sattler, J. M. (2008). Assessment of children: Cognitive foundations. La Mesa, CA: Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher. Inc.Google Scholar
  61. Schreibman, L., Dawson, G., Stahmer, A. C., Landa, R., Rogers, S. J., McGee, G. G., et al. (2015). Naturalistic developmental behavioral interventions: Empirically validated treatments for autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45(8), 2411–2428.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-015-2407-8.Google Scholar
  62. Siller, M., & Sigman, M. (2002). The behaviors of parents of children with autism predict the subsequent development of their children’s communication. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 32(2), 77–89.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1014884404276.Google Scholar
  63. Siller, M., & Sigman, M. (2008). Modeling longitudinal change in the language abilities of children with autism: Parent behaviors and child characteristics as predictors of change. Developmental Psychology, 44(6), 1691–1704.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0013771.Google Scholar
  64. Smith, K. E., Landry, S. H., & Swank, P. R. (2006). The role of early maternal responsiveness in supporting school-aged cognitive development for children who vary in birth status. Pediatrics, 117(5), 1608–1617.  https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2005-1284.Google Scholar
  65. Spiker, D., Boyce, G. C., & Boyce, L. K. (2002). Parent-child interactions when young children have disabilities. International Review of Research in Mental Retardation, 25, 35–70.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0074-7750(02)80005-2.Google Scholar
  66. Tamis-LeMonda, C. S., Bornstein, M. H., & Baumwell, L. (2001). Maternal responsiveness and children’s achievement of language milestones. Child Development, 72(3), 748–767.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00313.Google Scholar
  67. Tamis-LeMonda, C. S., Briggs, R. D., McClowry, S. G., & Snow, D. L. (2009). Maternal control and sensitivity, child gender, and maternal education in relation to children’s behavioral outcomes in African American families. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 30(3), 321–331.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2008.12.018.Google Scholar
  68. Verhulst, F. C., & Akkerhuis, G. W. (1989). Agreement between parents’ and teachers’ ratings of behavioral/emotional problems of children aged 4–12. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 30(1), 123–136.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1989.tb00772.x.Google Scholar
  69. Walton, K. M., & Ingersoll, B. R. (2015). The influence of maternal language responsiveness on the expressive speech production of children with autism spectrum disorders: A microanalysis of mother–child play interactions. Autism, 19(4), 421–432.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1362361314523144.Google Scholar
  70. Wan, M. W., Green, J., Elsabbagh, M., Johnson, M., Charman, T., & Plummer, F. (2012). Parent–infant interaction in infant siblings at risk of autism. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 33(3), 924–932.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2011.12.011.Google Scholar
  71. Warren, S. F., & Brady, N. C. (2007). The role of maternal responsivity in the development of children with intellectual disabilities. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 13(4), 330–338.  https://doi.org/10.1002/mrdd.20177.Google Scholar
  72. Wechsler, D. (2002). Wechsler preschool and primary scale of intelligence ™ (3rd ed.). London: Pearson Inc.Google Scholar
  73. White, S. W., & Roberson-Nay, R. (2009). Anxiety, social deficits, and loneliness in youth with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39(7), 1006–1013.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-009-0713-8.Google Scholar
  74. Winsler, A., & Wallace, G. L. (2002). Behavior problems and social skills in preschool children: Parent-teacher agreement and relations with classroom observations. Early Education and Development, 13(1), 41–58.  https://doi.org/10.1207/s15566935eed1301_3.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Department of EducationUniversity of CaliforniaRiversideUSA
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyUniversity of MassachusettsBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations