The Association Between Serum Vitamin D3 Levels and Autism Among Jordanian Boys
This study assesses the correlation between vitamin-D deficiency and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in Jordan. We performed a case–controlled cross-sectional analysis to assess vitamin D levels in 83 children with ASD aged less than 8 years old compared to 106 healthy controls. In addition, the association between vitamin D deficiencies and gastrointestinal (GI) complains and electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormalities commonly found in children with ASD was investigated. Vitamin D levels in ASD patients were significantly lower. Also, Vitamin D levels in ASD patients had significant correlation with GI complains, but no correlation between vitamin D levels and Ca2+or EEG abnormalities was detected. These data suggest a possible role for vitamin D deficiency in the pathophysiology of ASD.
KeywordsAutism Vitamin D3 Neurodevelopmental EEG Calcium GI
The present study was supported by the Deanship of Academic Research, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan. Also this work was done with the help of Hamdi Mango Center for Scientific Research for its facilities and equipment’s.
LA designed the method study and supervised the study. LA, LNA-E, MA lead the implementation of the method, performed the data analysis and drafted the manuscript. LA, LNA-E, MA, MO and OAH helped with the interpretation, and description of the results. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
- Abbasnezhad, A., Amani, R., Hajiani, E., Alavinejad, P., Cheraghian, B., & Ghadiri, A. (2016). Effect of vitamin D on gastrointestinal symptoms and health-related quality of life in irritable bowel syndrome patients: A randomized double-blind clinical trial. Neurogastroenterology and Motility, 28(10), 1533–1544. https://doi.org/10.1111/nmo.12851.Google Scholar
- Brandt, A., Godfred, R., Parikh, M., Fortier, N., Haltiner, A., Caylor, L., et al. (2014). Does vitamin D use alter seizure collections during elective adult inpatient video EEG monitering? Neurology, 82(10 Supplement), P6.186.Google Scholar
- DeLuca, H. F. (2004). Overview of general physiologic features and functions of vitamin D. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 80(6 Suppl), 1689–1696.Google Scholar
- Groves, N. J., McGrath, J. J., & Burne, T. H. J. (2014). Vitamin D as a neurosteroid affecting the developing and adult brain. Annual Review of Nutrition, 34(1), 117–141. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-nutr-071813-105557.Google Scholar
- Holick, M. F., Binkley, N. C., Bischoff-Ferrari, H. A., Gordon, C. M., Hanley, D. A., Heaney, R. P., et al. (2011). Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D deficiency: An endocrine society clinical practice guideline. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 96(7), 1911–1930. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2011-0385.Google Scholar
- Holick, M. F., MacLaughlin, J. A., Clark, M. B., Holick, S. A., Potts, J. T., Anderson, R. R., et al. (1980). Photosynthesis of previtamin D3 in human skin and the physiologic consequences. Science, 210(4466), 203.Google Scholar
- Kočovská, E., Andorsdóttir, G., Weihe, P., Halling, J., Fernell, E., Stóra, T., et al. (2014). Vitamin D in the general population of young adults with autism in the Faroe Islands. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44(12), 2996–3005. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-014-2155-1.Google Scholar
- Maeyama, K., Tomioka, K., Nagase, H., Yoshioka, M., Takagi, Y., Kato, T., et al. (2018). Congenital cytomegalovirus infection in children with autism spectrum disorder: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 48(5), 1483–1491. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-017-3412-x.Google Scholar
- Meckel, K., Li, Y. C., Lim, J., Kocherginsky, M., Weber, C., Almoghrabi, A., et al. (2016). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration is inversely associated with mucosal inflammation in patients with ulcerative colitis. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 104(1), 113–120. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.115.123786.Google Scholar
- Palmieri, L., Papaleo, V., Porcelli, V., Scarcia, P., Gaita, L., Sacco, R., et al. (2010). Altered calcium homeostasis in autism-spectrum disorders: Evidence from biochemical and genetic studies of the mitochondrial aspartate/glutamate carrier AGC1. Molecular Psychiatry, 15(1), 38–52. https://doi.org/10.1038/mp.2008.63.Google Scholar
- Saad, K., Abdel-rahman, A. A., Elserogy, Y. M., Al-Atram, A. A., Cannell, J. J., Bjørklund, G., et al. (2016). Vitamin D status in autism spectrum disorders and the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation in autistic children. Nutritional Neuroscience, 19(8), 346–351. https://doi.org/10.1179/1476830515Y.0000000019.Google Scholar
- Saad, K., Abdel-Rahman, A. A., Elserogy, Y. M., Al-Atram, A. A., El-Houfey, A. A., Othman, H. A., et al. (2018). Randomized controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation in children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 59(1), 20–29. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12652.Google Scholar
- Tazzyman, S., Richards, N., Trueman, A. R., Evans, A. L., Grant, V. A., Garaiova, I., et al. (2015). Vitamin D associates with improved quality of life in participants with irritable bowel syndrome: Outcomes from a pilot trial. BMJ Open Gastroenterology, 2(1), e000052. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjgast-2015-000052.Google Scholar