Detailed Assessment of Incontinence, Psychological Problems and Parental Stress in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Incontinence, psychological symptoms, parental stress and psychopathology were examined in 51 children (43 boys, mean age = 9.7 years) presented in an outpatient clinic for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and in 53 matched controls (43 boys, mean age = 10.2 years). All children were clinically assessed for ASD, incontinence and psychopathology according to current guidelines. ASD was confirmed in 37 children and excluded in 14. Enuresis (16.2%) and daytime urinary incontinence (16.2%), but not fecal incontinence (8.2%) were more common in ASD than in controls. Children with ASD showed significantly more comorbid psychiatric disorders. Parents of children with ASD experience more stress. Parental stress was predicted by parental psychopathology, role restriction and group (patient/control), but not by incontinence.
KeywordsAutism spectrum disorder Incontinence Enuresis Parental stress Parental psychopathology
JN conceived the study, participated in the coordination, performed statistical analysis, interpreted the data and drafted the manuscript. RF participated in the design of the study coordinated data acquisition, performed the measurement, helped with statistical analysis and interpretation of the data. CW conceived the study and participated in the design and interpretation of the data and helped to draft the manuscript. AB participated in the design and coordination of the study and performed the measurement. TL participated in the design and coordination of the study and performed the measurement. AvG conceived the study and participated in the design and interpretation of the data and revised the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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