Psychometric Assessments of Three Self-Report Autism Scales (AQ, RBQ-2A, and SQ) for General Adult Populations

  • Ronnie JiaEmail author
  • Zachary R. Steelman
  • Heather H. Jia


This study assesses the psychometric properties of three self-report measures of autistic-like tendencies in the general adult population: autistic spectrum quotient (AQ), adult repetitive behaviours questionnaire-2 (RBQ-2A), and systemizing quotient (SQ). Three rounds of development and testing using different U.S. and global samples led to three instruments that are psychometrically sound, parsimonious, and generalizable across populations. The resulting AQ-9, consisting of two factors: social communication and attention to detail, now mirrors the current dual diagnostic criteria in the DSM-5. The RBQ-2A-R has now been refined through CFA for the first time. The new SQ-7 scale also has updated content. All three refined scales demonstrate satisfactory psychometric validity and parsimony and now provide evidence of their appropriateness for empirical research.


Autism AQ RBQ-2A SQ Mechanical Turk Factorial validity 


Author Contributions

All authors contributed to the design, analysis, and writing of the paper.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the Institutional Review Board and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the research.

Conflict of interest



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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ronnie Jia
    • 1
    Email author
  • Zachary R. Steelman
    • 2
  • Heather H. Jia
    • 1
  1. 1.Illinois State UniversityNormalUSA
  2. 2.University of ArkansasFayettevilleUSA

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