Brief Report: Challenging Behaviors in Toddlers and Preschoolers with Angelman, Prader–Willi, and Williams Syndromes
Children with neurogenetic syndromes (NGS) experience comorbid challenging behaviors and psychopathology. We examined challenging behaviors in 86 toddlers and preschoolers across three NGS [Angelman syndrome (AS), Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS), and Williams syndrome (WS)] and 43 low-risk controls (LRC), using the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1½–5. Challenging behavior profiles differed across NGS, with generally elevated behaviors in AS and WS, but not PWS, relative to LRC. Withdrawn and autism spectrum symptoms were particularly elevated in AS. Although several profiles were similar to those previously reported in older children and adults, we also observed inconsistencies that suggest non-linear developmental patterns of challenging behaviors. These findings underscore the importance of characterizing early challenging behaviors to inform atypical phenotypic development and targeted intervention.
KeywordsChallenging behavior Early childhood Angelman syndrome Prader–Willi syndrome Williams syndrome Child Behavior Checklist
WSN conceived of the study, participated in its design, performed the statistical analyses, interpreted the results, and drafted the manuscript; BLT conceived of the study, participated in its design, reviewed the statistical analyses, interpreted the results, and drafted the manuscript. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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