Brief Report: Does Social Functioning Moderate the Motor Outcomes of a Physical Activity Program for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders—A Pilot Study
- 628 Downloads
Several recent studies revealed that physical activity programs that focus on fundamental motor skills could enhance both motor and social performance. The purpose of this pilot was to explore whether the social impairment of Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) moderated the motor outcomes of a physical activity program. Nine children with ASD attended a 2-week program that adopted the Classroom Pivotal Response Teaching. Significant improvements on motor skills were found in all participants. Furthermore, children with more social impairment demonstrated greater motor improvement in comparison to those with less social problems. Findings suggest the importance of social factors on the outcomes of physical activity programs and the interplays between social and motor domains in ASD interventions.
KeywordsASD Physical activity Motor skills TGMD Chinese
This project is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation in China (Grant # C2111-31671162). Special thanks to all the clinicians at the children learning disability clinic who not only assisted in assessment and diagnosis, but also provided medical support during the physical activity intervention. Thanks to all the parents, volunteers, and children who have dedicated their time and effort in this project.
JB and BS designed the study. YP coordinated the study. YP, YX, YX, MZ, and LD collected data and were involved in statistical analyses. JB drafted the initial manuscript. All authors were involved in the result interpretations, critically revised the manuscript, and approved the final manuscript as submitted.
- American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-5 (5th ed.). Washington D.C.: American Psychiatric Association. Retrieved from http://dsm.psychiatryonline.org//book.aspx?bookid=556.
- Bar-Haim, Y., & Bart, O. (2006). Motor function and social participation in kindergarten children. Social Development, 15, 296–310. Retrieved from http://people.socsci.tau.ac.il/mu/anxietytrauma/files/2013/08/Bar-Haim-Bart-2006-Social-Development.pdf.
- Cermak, S. A., Katz, N., Weintraub, N., Steinhart, S., Raz-Silbiger, S., Munoz, M., et al. (2015). Participation in physical activity, fitness, and risk for obesity in children with developmental coordination disorder: A cross-cultural study. Occupational Therapy International, 22(4), 163–173. https://doi.org/10.1002/oti.1393.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Constantino, J. N. (2005). Social Responsiveness Scale™ (SRS™). Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services. Retrieved from http://www.wpspublish.com/store/p/2993/social-responsiveness-scale-srs-by-john-n-constantino-md.
- Ewen, J. B., Lakshmanan, B. M., Pillai, A. S., McAuliffe, D., Nettles, C., Hallett, M., et al. (2016). Decreased modulation of EEG oscillations in high-functioning autism during a motor control task. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 10, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2016.00198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Floris, D. L., Barber, A. D., Nebel, M. B., Martinelli, M., Lai, M.-C., Crocetti, D., et al. (2016). Atypical lateralization of motor circuit functional connectivity in children with autism is associated with motor deficits. Molecular Autism, 7(1), 35. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13229-016-0096-6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Frankel, F. D., Gorospe, C. M., Chang, Y.-C., & Sugar, C. A. (2011). Mothers’ reports of play dates and observation of school playground behavior of children having high-functioning autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 52(5), 571–579. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2010.02318.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fulceri, F., Contaldo, A., Parrini, I., Sara, C., Narzisi, A., Tancredi, R., et al. (2015). Locomotion and grasping impairment in preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder. Clinical Neuropsychiatry, 12(4), 94–100. Retrieved from http://www.clinicalneuropsychiatry.org/pdf/fulceri-web.pdf.
- Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Kagerer, F., Bo, J., Contreras-Vidal, J. L., & Clark, J. E. (2004). Visuomotor adaptation in children with developmental coordination disorder. Motor Control, 8(4), 450–60. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17011655.
- Ketcheson, L., Hauck, J., & Ulrich, D. (2017). The effects of an early motor skill intervention on motor skills, levels of physical activity, and socialization in young children with autism spectrum disorder: A pilot study. Autism, 21(4), 481–492. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362361316650611.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lord, C., Risi, S., Lambrecht, L., Cook, E. H., Leventhal, B. L., DiLavore, P. C., et al. (2000). The autism diagnostic observation schedule-generic: a standard measure of social and communication deficits associated with the spectrum of autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30(3), 205–223. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11055457.
- Pang, Y. L., Lee, C. M., Wright, M., Shen, J., Shen, B., & Bo, J. (2018). Challenges of case identification and diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders in China: A critical review of procedures, assessment, and diagnostic criteria. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 53, 53–66. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2018.06.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Provost, B., Lopez, B. R., & Heimerl, S. (2007). A comparison of motor delays in young children: Autism spectrum disorder, developmental delay, and developmental concerns. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37(2), 321–328. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-006-0170-6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rutter, M., Bailey, A., Berumment, S., Lord, C., & Pickles, A. (2003). Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ). Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services. Retrieved from http://www.wpspublish.com/store/p/2954/social-communication-questionnaire-scq.
- Rutter, M., LeCouteur, A., & Lord, C. (2003). Autism diagnostic interview-revised manual. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
- Smits-Engelsman, B., Vinçon, S., Blank, R., Quadrado, V. H., Polatajko, H., & Wilson, P. H. (2018). Evaluating the evidence for motor-based interventions in developmental coordination disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 74, 72–102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2018.01.002.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ulrich, D. (2000). Test of gross motor development-second edition. Austin, TX: Pro-ed Publisher. Retrieved from http://www.proedinc.com/customer/productview.aspx?id=1776.
- Ulrich, D. A. (2016). Test of gross motor development (3rd ed.) (3rd ed.). Austin: Pro-ed publisher.Google Scholar
- Whittingham, K., Fahey, M., Rawicki, B., & Boyd, R. (2010). The relationship between motor abilities and early social development in a preschool cohort of children with cerebral palsy. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 31(6), 1346–1351. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2010.07.006.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wong, C., Odom, S., Hume, K., Cox, A., Fettig, A., Kucharczyk, S., et al. (2015). Evidence-based practices for children, youth, and young adults with autism spectrum disorder: A comprehensive review. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 45(7), 1951–1966. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-014-2351-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar