Advertisement

Preschool-Onset Major Depressive Disorder is Characterized by Electrocortical Deficits in Processing Pleasant Emotional Pictures

  • Diana J. WhalenEmail author
  • Kirsten E. Gilbert
  • Danielle Kelly
  • Greg Hajcak
  • Emily S. Kappenman
  • Joan L. Luby
  • Deanna M. Barch
Article
  • 8 Downloads

Abstract

Reductions in positive affect are a salient feature of preschool-onset major depressive disorder. Yet, little is known about the psychophysiological correlates of this blunted positive affect and whether reduced physiological responding to pleasant stimuli may differentiate depressed and healthy young children. 120 four-to-seven year old children with current depression and 63 psychiatrically healthy 4-to-7 year old children completed a simple picture-viewing task of pleasant and neutral pictures while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. The early-childhood version of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Depression was used to establish psychiatric diagnoses. A one-way ANCOVA was used to test for group differences in response to pleasant and neutral pictures. Young children with depression showed a reduced response to pleasant vs. neutral pictures (LPP), after controlling for children’s age (F(1,180) = 4.15, p = 0.04, η2 = 0.02). The LPP for the children with preschool-onset depression (M = 0.99, SE = 0.65) was significantly smaller than the LPP in the healthy group of young children (M = 3.27, SE = 0.90). This difference did not vary as a function of depression or anhedonia severity within the group with depression or the healthy children. Similar to older children and adolescents with depression, young children with depression display reductions in responsivity to pleasant stimuli as indexed by the LPP. These findings extend prior findings indicating a blunted response to pleasant stimuli in preschool- onset depression. Given the greater neuroplasticity of emotional response and regulation, these findings suggest clinical attention to emotional response to pleasure is an important target in preschool-onset depression. Clinical trial registration information: A Randomized Control Trial of PCIT-ED for Preschool Depression; http://clinicaltrials.gov/;NCT02076425.

Keywords

Late positive potential (LPP) Early childhood Depression ERP 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors wish to thank the many parents and children who participated in the Parent-Child Interaction Treatment Emotion Development (PCIT-ED) study.

Compliance with Ethical Standards  

Conflict of Interest

Dr. Barch consults for Pfizer. Dr. Luby receives royalties from Guildford Press. All other authors report no biomedical financial interests or potential conflicts of interest.

Ethics and Consent Statement

This study was carried out in accordance with the recommendations of Washington University School of Medicine Institutional Review Board with written informed consent from all caregivers and verbal assent from all preschoolers. All caregivers gave written informed consent in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. The protocol was approved by the Washington University School of Medicine Institutional Review Board

Supplementary material

10802_2019_585_MOESM1_ESM.docx (21 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 20 kb)
10802_2019_585_MOESM2_ESM.docx (15 kb)
ESM 2 (DOCX 14 kb)

References

  1. Achenbach, T. M., & Edelbrock, C. S. (1983). Manual for the child behavior checklist and revised child behvaior profile. Department of Psychiatry: University of Vermont.Google Scholar
  2. Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2000). Manual for the ASEBA preschool forms & profiles: An integrated system of multi-informant assessment; child behavior checklist for ages 1 1/2–5; language development survey. Caregiver-teacher report form: University of Vermont.Google Scholar
  3. Auerbach, R. P., Stanton, C. H., Proudfit, G. H., & Pizzagalli, D. A. (2015). Self-referential processing in depressed adolescents: A high-density ERP study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 124(2), 233–245.  https://doi.org/10.1037/abn0000023.Google Scholar
  4. Barch, D. M., Gaffrey, M. S., Botteron, K. N., Belden, A. C., & Luby, J. L. (2012). Functional brain activation to emotionally valenced faces in school-aged children with a history of preschool-onset major depression. Biological Psychiatry, 72(12), 1035–1042.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2012.06.009.Google Scholar
  5. Barch, D. M., Whalen, D., Gilbert, K., Kelly, D., Kappenman, E. S., Hajcak, G., & Luby, J. L. (2018). Neural indicators of anhedonia: Predictors and mechanisms of treatment change in a randomized clinical trial in early childhood depression. Biological Psychiatry, 85, 863–871.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2018.11.021.Google Scholar
  6. Belden, A. C., Pagliaccio, D., Murphy, E. R., Luby, J. L., & Barch, D. M. (2015). Neural activation during cognitive emotion regulation in previously depressed compared to healthy children: Evidence of specific alterations. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 54(9), 771–781.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2015.06.014.Google Scholar
  7. Belden, A. C., Irvin, K., Hajcak, G., Kappenman, E. S., Kelly, D., Karlow, S., Luby, J. L., & Barch, D. M. (2016). Neural correlates of reward processing in depressed and healthy preschool-age children. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 55, 1081–1089.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2016.09.503.Google Scholar
  8. Benning, S. D., & Oumeziane, B. A. (2017). Reduced positive emotion and underarousal are uniquely associated with subclinical depression symptoms: Evidence from psychophysiology, self-report, and symptom clusters. Psychophysiology, 54(7), 1010–1030.  https://doi.org/10.1111/psyp.12853.Google Scholar
  9. Bufferd, S. J., Dougherty, L. R., Carlson, G. A., Rose, S., & Klein, D. N. (2012). Psychiatric disorders in preschoolers: Continuity from ages 3 to 6. American Journal of Psychiatry, 169(11), 1157–1164.  https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2012.12020268.Google Scholar
  10. Burkhouse, K. L., Owens, M., Feurer, C., Sosoo, E., Kudinova, A., & Gibb, B. E. (2017). Increased neural and pupillary reactivity to emotional faces in adolescents with current and remitted major depressive disorder. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 12(5), 783–792.  https://doi.org/10.1093/scan/nsw184.Google Scholar
  11. Carver, C. S., & White, T. L. (1994). Behavioral inhibition, behavioral activation, and affective responses to impending reward and punishment: The BIS/BAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67(2), 319–333.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.67.2.319.Google Scholar
  12. Chronaki, G., Broyd, S. J., Garner, M., Benikos, N., Thompson, M. J. J., Sonuga-Barke, E. J. S., & Hadwin, J. A. (2018). The moderating effect of self-reported state and trait anxiety on the late positive potential to emotional faces in 6–11-year-old children. Frontiers in Psychology, 9.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00125.
  13. Cohen, P., West, S. G., & Aiken, L. S. (2014). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences.  https://doi.org/10.4324/9781410606266.
  14. Cronbach, L. J., & Furby, L. (1970). How we should measure “change”: Or should we? Psychological Bulletin, 74(1), 68–80.  https://doi.org/10.1037/h0029382.Google Scholar
  15. Cuthbert, B. N., Schupp, H. T., Bradley, M. M., Birbaumer, N., & Lang, P. J. (2000). Brain potentials in affective picture processing: Covariation with autonomic arousal and affective report. Biological Psychology, 52(2), 95–111.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-0511(99)00044-7.Google Scholar
  16. DeCicco, J. M., Solomon, B., & Dennis, T. A. (2012). Neural correlates of cognitive reappraisal in children: An ERP study. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 2(1), 70–80.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dcn.2011.05.009.Google Scholar
  17. DeCicco, J. M., O’Toole, L. J., & Dennis, T. A. (2014). The late positive potential as a neural signature for cognitive reappraisal in children. Developmental Neuropsychology, 39(7), 497–515.  https://doi.org/10.1080/87565641.2014.959171.Google Scholar
  18. Dennis, T. A., & Hajcak, G. (2009). The late positive potential: A neurophysiological marker for emotion regulation in children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 50(11), 1373–1383.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2009.02168.x.Google Scholar
  19. Field, A. (2017). Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS statistics: North American edition. Sage Publishers.Google Scholar
  20. Forbes, E. E., & Dahl, R. E. (2005). Neural systems of positive affect: Relevance to understanding child and adolescent depression? Development and Psychopathology, 17(3), 827–850.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S095457940505039X.Google Scholar
  21. Forbes, E. E., & Dahl, R. E. (2012). Research review: Altered reward function in adolescent depression: What, when and how? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53(1), 3–15.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2011.02477.x.Google Scholar
  22. Foti, D., Hajcak, G., & Dien, J. (2009). Differentiating neural responses to emotional pictures: Evidence from temporal-spatial PCA. Psychophysiology, 46(3), 521–530.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8986.2009.00796.x.Google Scholar
  23. Foti, D., Olvet, D. M., Klein, D. N., & Hajcak, G. (2010). Reduced electrocortical response to threatening faces in major depressive disorder. Depression and Anxiety, 27(9), 813–820.  https://doi.org/10.1002/da.20712.Google Scholar
  24. Gaffrey, M. S., & Luby, J. L. (2012). Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia - Early Childhood Version (K-SADS-EC). St Louis: Washington University School of Medicine.Google Scholar
  25. Gaffrey, M. S., Luby, J. L., Repovš, G., Belden, A. C., Botteron, K. N., Luking, K. R., & Barch, D. M. (2010). Subgenual cingulate connectivity in children with a history of preschool-depression. Neuroreport, 21(18), 1182–1188.  https://doi.org/10.1097/WNR.0b013e32834127eb.Google Scholar
  26. Gaffrey, M. S., Barch, D. M., Singer, J., Shenoy, R., & Luby, J. L. (2013). Disrupted amygdala reactivity in depressed 4- to 6-year-old children. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 52(7), 737–746.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2013.04.009.Google Scholar
  27. Gaffrey, M. S., Barch, D. M., Bogdan, R., Farris, K., Petersen, S. E., & Luby, J. L. (2018). Amygdala reward reactivity mediates the association between preschool stress response and depression severity. Biological Psychiatry, 83(2), 128–136.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2017.08.020.Google Scholar
  28. Gilbert, K. E., Tonge, N. A., & Thompson, R. J. (2018). Associations between depression, anxious arousal and manifestations of psychological inflexibility. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 21, 88–96.Google Scholar
  29. Gratton, G., Coles, M. G. H., & Donchin, E. (1983). A new method for off-line removal of ocular artifact. Clinical Neurophysiology, 55(4), 468–484.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0013-4694(83)90135-9.Google Scholar
  30. Grunewald, M., Döhnert, M., Brandeis, D., Klein, A. M., Klitzing, K. von, Matuschek, T., & Stadelmann, S. (2018). Attenuated LPP to emotional face stimuli associated with parent- and self-reported depression in children and adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 1–10.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-018-0429-3.
  31. Hajcak, G., & Dennis, T. A. (2009). Brain potentials during affective picture processing in children. Biological Psychology, 80(3), 333–338.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsycho.2008.11.006.Google Scholar
  32. Hajcak, G., MacNamara, A., & Olvet, D. M. (2010). Event-related potentials, emotion, and emotion regulation: An integrative review. Developmental Neuropsychology, 35(2), 129–155.  https://doi.org/10.1080/87565640903526504.Google Scholar
  33. Hankin, B. L. (2015). Depression from childhood through adolescence: Risk mechanisms across multiple systems and levels of analysis. Current Opinion in Psychology, 4, 13–20.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copsyc.2015.01.003.Google Scholar
  34. Hayden, E. P., Klein, D. N., Durbin, C. E., & Olino, T. M. (2006). Positive emotionality at age 3 predicts cognitive styles in 7-year-old children. Development and Psychopathology, 18(02), 409–423.Google Scholar
  35. Hua, M., Han, Z. R., Chen, S., Yang, M., Zhou, R., & Hu, S. (2014). Late positive potential (LPP) modulation during affective picture processing in preschoolers. Biological Psychology, 101, 77–81.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsycho.2014.06.006.Google Scholar
  36. Jaworska, N., Blier, P., Fusee, W., & Knott, V. (2012). The temporal electrocortical profile of emotive facial processing in depressed males and females and healthy controls. Journal of Affective Disorders, 136(3), 1072–1081.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2011.10.047.Google Scholar
  37. Joormann, J., & Gotlib, I. H. (2007). Selective attention to emotional faces following recovery from depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 116(1), 80–85.Google Scholar
  38. Kayser, J., Bruder, G. E., Tenke, C. E., Stewart, J. E., & Quitkin, F. M. (2000). Event-related potentials (ERPs) to hemifield presentations of emotional stimuli: Differences between depressed patients and healthy adults in P3 amplitude and asymmetry. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 36(3), 211–236.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-8760(00)00078-7.Google Scholar
  39. Kayser, J., Tenke, C. E., Abraham, K. S., Alschuler, D. M., Alvarenga, J. E., Skipper, J., Warner, V., Bruder, G. E., & Weissman, M. M. (2017). Motivated attention and family risk for depression: Neuronal generator patterns at scalp elicited by lateralized aversive pictures reveal blunted emotional responsivity. NeuroImage: Clinical, 14, 692–707.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2017.03.007.Google Scholar
  40. Kessel, E. M., Dougherty, L. R., Kujawa, A., Hajcak, G., Carlson, G. A., & Klein, D. N. (2016). Longitudinal associations between preschool disruptive mood dysregulation disorder symptoms and neural reactivity to monetary reward during preadolescence. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 26(2), 131–137.  https://doi.org/10.1089/cap.2015.0071.Google Scholar
  41. Kessel, E. M., Kujawa, A., Goldstein, B., Hajcak, G., Bufferd, S. J., Dyson, M., & Klein, D. N. (2017). Behavioral observations of positive and negative valence systems in early childhood predict physiological measures of emotional processing three years later. Journal of Affective Disorders, 216, 70–77.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2016.10.044.Google Scholar
  42. Kujawa, A., & Burkhouse, K. L. (2017). Vulnerability to depression in youth: Advances from affective neuroscience. Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging, 2(1), 28–37.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2016.09.006.Google Scholar
  43. Kujawa, A., Hajcak, G., Torpey, D., Kim, J., & Klein, D. N. (2012a). Electrocortical reactivity to emotional faces in young children and associations with maternal and paternal depression. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 53(2), 207–215.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2011.02461.x.Google Scholar
  44. Kujawa, A., Klein, D. N., & Hajcak, G. (2012b). Electrocortical reactivity to emotional images and faces in middle childhood to early adolescence. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 2(4), 458–467.Google Scholar
  45. Kujawa, A., Klein, D. N., & Proudfit, G. H. (2013). Two-year stability of the late positive potential across middle childhood and adolescence. Biological psychology, 94(2), 290–296.Google Scholar
  46. Kujawa, A., MacNamara, A., Fitzgerald, K. D., Monk, C. S., & Phan, K. L. (2015). Enhanced neural reactivity to threatening faces in anxious youth: Evidence from event-related potentials. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 43(8), 1493–1501.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-015-0029-4.Google Scholar
  47. Lang, P. J., Bradley, M. M., & Cuthbert, B. N. (1995). International affective picture system. Center for Research in Psychophysiology: University of Florida.Google Scholar
  48. Lang, P. J., Bradley, M. M., & Cuthbert, B. N. (1997). Motivated attention: Affect, activation, and action. In Attention and orienting: Sensory and motivational processes (1st ed., pp. 97–135). Mawah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  49. Lang, P. J., Greenwald, M. K., Bradley, M. M., & Hamm, A. O. (1993). Looking at pictures: Affective, facial, visceral, and behavioral reactions. Psychophysiology, 30(3), 261–273.Google Scholar
  50. Lawrence, N. S., Williams, A. M., Surguladze, S., Giampietro, V., Brammer, M. J., Andrew, C., Frangou, S., Ecker, C., & Phillips, M. L. (2004). Subcortical and ventral prefrontal cortical neural responses to facial expressions distinguish patients with bipolar disorder and major depression. Biological Psychiatry, 55(6), 578–587.Google Scholar
  51. Levinson, A. R., Speed, B. C., & Hajcak, G. (2018). Neural response to pleasant pictures moderates prospective relationship between stress and depressive symptoms in adolescent girls. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 48, 1–13.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2018.1426004.Google Scholar
  52. Luby, J. L., & Belden, A. C. (2008). Clinical characteristics of bipolar vs. unipolar depression in preschool children: An empirical investigation. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 69(12), 1960–1969.Google Scholar
  53. Luby, J. L., Heffelfinger, A., Mrakotsky, C., Hessler, M. J., Brown, K. M., & Hildebrand, T. (2002). Preschool major depressive disorder: Preliminary validation for developmentally modified DSM-IV criteria. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 41(8), 928–937.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-200208000-00011.Google Scholar
  54. Luby, J. L., Heffelfinger, A., Mrakotsky, C., Brown, K. M., Hessler, M. J., Wallis, J. M., & Spitznagel, E. (2003). The clinical picture of depression in preschool children. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 42(3), 340–348.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-200303000-00015.Google Scholar
  55. Luby, J. L., Heffelfinger, A., Koenig-McNaught, A. L., Brown, K., & Spitznagel, E. (2004). The preschool feelings checklist: A brief and sensitive screening measure for depression in young children. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 43(6), 708–717.  https://doi.org/10.1097/01.chi.0000121066.29744.08.Google Scholar
  56. Luby, J. L., Belden, A. C., Pautsch, J., Si, X., & Spitznagel, E. (2009a). The clinical significance of preschool depression: Impairment in functioning and clinical markers of the disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders, 112(1), 111–119.Google Scholar
  57. Luby, J. L., Si, X., Belden, A. C., Tandon, M., & Spitznagel, E. (2009b). Preschool depression: Homotypic continuity and course over 24 months. Archives of General Psychiatry, 66(8), 897–905.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2009.97.Google Scholar
  58. Luby, J. L., Gaffrey, M. S., Tillman, R., April, L. M., & Belden, A. C. (2014). Trajectories of preschool disorders to full DSM depression at school age and early adolescence: Continuity of preschool depression. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 171(7), 768–776.  https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2014.13091198.Google Scholar
  59. Luby, J. L., Belden, A. C., Jackson, J. J., Lessov-Schlaggar, C. N., Harms, M. P., Tillman, R., Botteron, K., Whalen, D., & Barch, D. M. (2016). Early childhood depression and alterations in the trajectory of gray matter maturation in middle childhood and early adolescence. JAMA Psychiatry, 73(1), 31–38.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2015.2356.Google Scholar
  60. Luby, J. L., Barch, D. M., Whalen, D., Tillman, R., & Freedland, K. E. (2018). A randomized controlled trial of parent-child psychotherapy targeting emotion development for early childhood depression. American Journal of Psychiatry, 175(11), 1102–1110Google Scholar
  61. Luking, K. R., Repovs, G., Belden, A. C., Gaffrey, M. S., Botteron, K. N., Luby, J. L., & Barch, D. M. (2011). Functional connectivity of the amygdala in early-childhood-onset depression. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 50(10), 1027-1041.e3.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2011.07.019.
  62. MacNamara, A., Kotov, R., & Hajcak, G. (2016). Diagnostic and symptom-based predictors of emotional processing in generalized anxiety disorder and major depressive disorder: An event-related potential study. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 40(3), 275–289.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-015-9717-1.Google Scholar
  63. Mardaga, S., & Iakimova, G. (2014). Neurocognitive processing of emotion facial expressions in individuals with self-reported depressive symptoms: The role of personality and anxiety. Neurophysiologie Clinique/Clinical Neurophysiology, 44(5), 447–455.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neucli.2014.08.007.Google Scholar
  64. McCabe, C. (2018). Linking anhedonia symptoms with behavioural and neural reward responses in adolescent depression. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 22, 143–151.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.07.001.Google Scholar
  65. Nelson, T. D., Nelson, J. M., Kidwell, K. M., James, T. D., & Espy, K. A. (2015a). Preschool sleep problems and differential associations with specific aspects of executive control in early elementary school. Developmental Neuropsychology, 40(3), 167–180.  https://doi.org/10.1080/87565641.2015.1020946.Google Scholar
  66. Nelson, B. D., Perlman, G., Hajcak, G., Klein, D. N., & Kotov, R. (2015b). Familial risk for distress and fear disorders and emotional reactivity in adolescence: An event-related potential investigation. Psychological Medicine, 45(12), 2545–2556.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291715000471.Google Scholar
  67. Pagliaccio, D., Luby, J. L., Luking, K. R., Belden, A. C., & Barch, D. M. (2014). Brain–behavior relationships in the experience and regulation of negative emotion in healthy children: Implications for risk for childhood depression. Development and Psychopathology, 26(special issue 4pt2), 1289–1303.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579414001035.
  68. Pagliaccio, D., Luking, K. R., Anokhin, A. P., Hayden, E. P., Peng, C.-Z., Gotlib, I. H., et al. (2015). Revising the BIS/BAS scale to study development: Measurement invariance and normative effects of age and sex from childhood through adulthood. Psychological Assessment, 28(4), 429–442.  https://doi.org/10.1037/pas0000186.Google Scholar
  69. Rottenberg, J., Gross, J. J., & Gotlib, I. H. (2005). Emotion context insensitivity in major depressive disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 114(4), 627–639.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.114.4.627
  70. Schupp, H. T., Cuthbert, B. N., Bradley, M. M., Cacioppo, J. T., Tiffany, I., & Lang, P. J. (2003). Affective picture processing: The late positive potential is modulated by motivational relevance. Psychophysiology, 37(2), 257–261.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1469-8986.3720257.Google Scholar
  71. Schupp, H. T., Flaisch, T., Stockburger, J., & Junghöfer, M. (2006). Emotion and attention: Event-related brain potential studies. In S. Anders, G. Ende, M. Junghofer, J. Kissler, & D. Wildgruber (Eds.), Progress in Brain Research (pp. 31–51).  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0079-6123(06)56002-9.
  72. Shestyuk, A. Y., & Deldin, P. J. (2010). Automatic and strategic representation of the self in major depression: Trait and state abnormalities. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 167(5), 536–544.  https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2009.06091444.Google Scholar
  73. Solomon, B., DeCicco, J. M., & Dennis, T. A. (2012). Emotional picture processing in children: An ERP study. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 2(1), 110–119.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dcn.2011.04.002.Google Scholar
  74. Speed, B. C., Nelson, B. D., Auerbach, R. P., Klein, D. N., & Hajcak, G. (2016). Depression risk and electrocortical reactivity during self-referential emotional processing in 8 to 14 year-old girls. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 125(5), 607–619.  https://doi.org/10.1037/abn0000173.
  75. Stange, J. P., MacNamara, A., Kennedy, A. E., Hajcak, G., Phan, K. L., & Klumpp, H. (2017). Brain-behavioral adaptability predicts response to cognitive behavioral therapy for emotional disorders: A person-centered event-related potential study. Neuropsychologia. Google Scholar
  76. Suslow, T., Konrad, C., Kugel, H., Rumstadt, D., Zwitserlood, P., Schöning, S., ... & Arolt, V. (2010). Automatic mood-congruent amygdala responses to masked facial expressions in major depression. Biological Psychiatry, 67(2), 155–160.Google Scholar
  77. Suzuki, H., Botteron, K. N., Luby, J. L., Belden, A. C., Gaffrey, M. S., Babb, C. M., Nishino, T., Miller, M. I., Ratnanather, J. T., & Barch, D. M. (2012). Structural-functional correlations between hippocampal volume and cortico-limbic emotional responses in depressed children. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 13(1), 135–151.  https://doi.org/10.3758/s13415-012-0121-y.Google Scholar
  78. van den Heuvel, M., Henrichs, J., Donkers, F., & Van den Bergh, B. (2015). Effects of prenatal exposure to maternal anxiety and mindfulness on the child’s affective processing. Altered Neurocognitive Functioning in Infants and Young Children Prenatally Exposed to Maternal Anxiety and Mindfulness, 81.Google Scholar
  79. Webb, C. A., Auerbach, R. P., Bondy, E., Stanton, C. H., Foti, D., & Pizzagalli, D. A. (2017). Abnormal neural responses to feedback in depressed adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 126(1), 19–31.  https://doi.org/10.1037/abn0000228.Google Scholar
  80. Weinberg, A., & Hajcak, G. (2011). The late positive potential predicts subsequent interference with target processing. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 23(10), 2994–3007.  https://doi.org/10.1162/jocn.2011.21630.Google Scholar
  81. Weinberg, A., & Sandre, A. (2018). Distinct associations between low positive affect, panic, and neural responses to reward and threat during late stages of affective picture processing. Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging, 3(1), 59–68.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2017.09.013.Google Scholar
  82. Weinberg, A., Venables, N. C., Proudfit, G. H., & Patrick, C. J. (2015). Heritability of the neural response to emotional pictures: Evidence from ERPs in an adult twin sample. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 10(3), 424–434.  https://doi.org/10.1093/scan/nsu059.Google Scholar
  83. Weinberg, A., Perlman, G., Kotov, R., & Hajcak, G. (2016). Depression and reduced neural response to emotional images: Distinction from anxiety, and importance of symptom dimensions and age of onset. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 125(1), 26–39.  https://doi.org/10.1037/abn0000118.Google Scholar
  84. Weinberg, A., May, A. M., Klonsky, E. D., Kotov, R., & Hajcak, G. (2017). Decreased neural response to threat differentiates patients who have attempted suicide from nonattempters with current ideation. Clinical Psychological Science, 5(6), 952–963.  https://doi.org/10.1177/2167702617718193.Google Scholar
  85. Whalen, D. J., Luby, J. L., Tilman, R., Mike, A., Barch, D., & Belden, A. C. (2016). Latent class profiles of depressive symptoms from early to middle childhood: Predictors, outcomes, and gender effects. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 57(7), 794–804.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12518.Google Scholar
  86. Whalen, D. J., Sylvester, C. M., & Luby, J. L. (2017). Depression and anxiety in preschoolers: A review of the past 7 years. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics, 26(3), 503–522.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chc.2017.02.006.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryWashington University School of Medicine in St. LouisSt. LouisUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyFlorida State UniversityTallahasseeUSA
  3. 3.Department of PsychologySan Diego State UniversitySan DiegoUSA
  4. 4.The Program in NeuroscienceWashington University in St. LouisSt. LouisUSA
  5. 5.Department of PsychologyWashington University in St. LouisSt. LouisUSA
  6. 6.Department of RadiologyWashington University in St. LouisSt. LouisUSA

Personalised recommendations