Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology

, Volume 46, Issue 4, pp 713–727 | Cite as

Inattentive Behavior in Boys with ADHD during Classroom Instruction: the Mediating Role of Working Memory Processes

  • Sarah A. Orban
  • Mark D. Rapport
  • Lauren M. Friedman
  • Samuel J. Eckrich
  • Michael J. Kofler
Article

Abstract

Children with ADHD exhibit clinically impairing inattentive behavior during classroom instruction and in other cognitively demanding contexts. However, there have been surprisingly few attempts to validate anecdotal parent/teacher reports of intact sustained attention during ‘preferred’ activities such as watching movies. The current investigation addresses this omission, and provides an initial test of how ADHD-related working memory deficits contribute to inattentive behavior during classroom instruction. Boys ages 8–12 (M = 9.62, SD = 1.22) with ADHD (n = 32) and typically developing boys (TD; n = 30) completed a counterbalanced series of working memory tests and watched two videos on separate assessment days: an analogue math instructional video, and a non-instructional video selected to match the content and cognitive demands of parent/teacher-described ‘preferred’ activities. Objective, reliable observations of attentive behavior revealed no between-group differences during the non-instructional video (d = −0.02), and attentive behavior during the non-instructional video was unrelated to all working memory variables (r = −0.11 to 0.19, ns). In contrast, the ADHD group showed disproportionate attentive behavior decrements during analogue classroom instruction (d = −0.71). Bias-corrected, bootstrapped, serial mediation revealed that 59% of this between-group difference was attributable to ADHD-related impairments in central executive working memory, both directly (ER = 41%) and indirectly via its role in coordinating phonological short-term memory (ER = 15%). Between-group attentive behavior differences were no longer detectable after accounting for ADHD-related working memory impairments (d = −0.29, ns). Results confirm anecdotal reports of intact sustained attention during activities that place minimal demands on working memory, and indicate that ADHD children’s inattention during analogue classroom instruction is related, in large part, to their underdeveloped working memory abilities.

Keywords

ADHD Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder Classroom attention Working memory Classroom instruction 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Funding

This study was conducted without external funding.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent/assent was obtained from all participants included in the study.

References

  1. Abikoff, H. B., Jensen, P. S., Arnold, L. E., Hoza, B., Hechtman, L., Pollack, S., et al. (2002). Observed classroom behavior of children with ADHD: relationship to gender and comorbidity. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30(4), 349–359.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2001). Manual for the ASEBA School-age Forms & Profiles. Burlington: University of Vermont.Google Scholar
  3. Alderson, R. M., Rapport, M. D., Hudec, K. L., Sarver, D. E., & Kofler, M. J. (2010). Competing core processes in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): do working memory deficiencies underlie behavioral inhibition deficits? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 38, 497–507.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Alderson, R. M., Rapport, M. D., Kasper, L. J., Sarver, D. E., & Kofler, M. J. (2012). Hyperactivity in boys with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): the association between deficient behavioral inhibition, attentional processes, and objectively measured activity. Child Neuropsychology, 18, 487–505.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Alderson, R. M., Kasper, L. J., Patros, C. H., Hudec, K. L., Tarle, S. J., & Lea, S. E. (2015). Working memory deficits in boys with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): an examination of orthographic coding and episodic buffer processes. Child Neuropsychology, 21(4), 509–530.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Alderson, R. M., Patros, C. H., Tarle, S. J., Hudec, K. L., Kasper, L. J., & Lea, S. E. (2017). Working memory and behavioral inhibition in boys with ADHD: an experimental examination of competing models. Child Neuropsychology, 23(3), 255–272.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-5 (5th ed.). Arlington: American Psychiatric Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baddeley, A. (2003). Working memory: looking back and looking forward. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 4(10), 829–839.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Baddeley, A. (2007). Working memory, thought, and action. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bálint, S., Czobor, P., Komlosi, S., Meszaros, A., Simon, V., & Bitter, I. (2008). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): gender-and age-related differences in neurocognition. Psychological Medicine, 39(8), 1337–1345.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Barkley, R. A. (Ed.). (2014). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a handbook for diagnosis and treatment (5th ed.). New York: Guilford Publications.Google Scholar
  12. California Department of Education (2017). Recommended and required instructional minutes. Sacramento, CA. Retrieved from http://pubs.cde.ca.gov/tcsii/ch3/rdmdrqirdinstmin.aspx.
  13. Chronis, A. M., Fabiano, G. A., Gnagy, E. M., Onyango, A. N., Pelham, W. E., Lopez-Williams, A., et al. (2004). An evaluation of the summer treatment program for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder using a treatment withdrawal design. Behavior Therapy, 35(3), 561–585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Colmar, S., Davis, N., & Sheldon, L. (2016). A pilot classroom-based study of attention and working memory strategies for primary-aged students. Journal of Psychologists & Counsellors in Schools, 26, 125–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Colom, R., Abad, F. J., Rebollo, I., & Shih, P. C. (2005). Memory span and general intelligence: a latent-variable approach. Intelligence, 33(6), 623–642.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Conway, A. R. A., Kane, M. J., Bunting, M. F., Hambrick, D. Z., Wilhelm, O., & Engle, R. W. (2005). Working memory span tasks: a methodological review and user’s guide. Psychonomic Bulletin Review, 12(5), 769–786.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Cortese, S., Ferrin, M., Brandeis, D., Buitelaar, J., Daley, D., Dittmann, R. W., et al. (2015). Cognitive training for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: meta-analysis of clinical and neuropsychological outcomes from randomized controlled trials. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 54(3), 164–174.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Dally, K. (2006). The influence of phonological processing and inattentive behaviour on reading acquisition. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98(2), 420–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. del Mar Bernad, M., Servera, M., Becker, S. P., & Burns, G. L. (2016). Sluggish cognitive tempo and ADHD inattention as predictors of externalizing, internalizing, and impairment domains: a 2-year longitudinal study. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 44(4), 771–785.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Denney, C. B., Rapport, M. D., & Chung, K. M. (2005). Interactions of task and subject variables among continuous performance tests. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46(4), 420–435.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Dennis, M., Francis, D. J., Cirino, P. T., Schachar, R., Barnes, M. A., & Fletcher, J. M. (2009). Why IQ is not a covariate in cognitive studies of neurodevelopmental disorders. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 15(3), 331–343.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Dirlikov, B., Rosch, K. S., Crocetti, D., Denckla, M. B., Mahone, E. M., & Mostofsky, S. H. (2015). Distinct frontal lobe morphology in girls and boys with ADHD. Neuroimage: Clinical, 7, 222–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dovis, S., Van der Oord, S., Wiers, R. W., & Prins, P. J. (2012). Can motivation normalize working memory and task persistence in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder? The effects of money and computer-gaming. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 40(5), 669–681.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. DuPaul, G. J., & Rapport, M. D. (1993). Does methylphenidate normalize the classroom performance of children with attention deficit disorder? Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 32(1), 190–198.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. DuPaul, G. J., & Stoner, G. (2014). ADHD in the schools: assessment and intervention strategies. New York: Guilford Publications.Google Scholar
  26. Elliott, J. G., Gathercole, S. E., Alloway, T. P., Holmes, J., & Kirkwood, H. (2010). An evaluation of a classroom-based intervention to help overcome working memory difficulties and improve long-term academic achievement. Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology, 9(3), 227–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Engle, R. W., Carullo, J. J., & Collins, K. W. (1991). Individual differences in working memory for comprehension and following directions. The Journal of Educational Research, 84(5), 253–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fassbender, C., & Schweitzer, J. B. (2006). Is there evidence for neural compensation in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder? A review of the functional neuroimaging literature. Clinical Psychology Review, 26(4), 445–465.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. Fassbender, C., Zhang, H., Buzy, W. M., Cortes, C. R., Mizuiri, D., Beckett, L., & Schweitzer, J. B. (2009). A lack of default network suppression is linked to increased distractibility in ADHD. Brain Research, 1273, 114–128.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Faul, F., Erdfelder, E., Lang, A. G., & Buchner, A. (2007). G* power 3: a flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences. Behavior Research Methods, 39(2), 175–191.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Frazier, T. W., Youngstrom, E. A., Glutting, J. J., & Watkins, M. W. (2007). ADHD and achievement meta-analysis of the child, adolescent, and adult literatures and a concomitant study with college students. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 40(1), 49–65.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Friedman, L.M., Rapport, M.D., Orban, S.A., Eckrich, S.E., Calub, C.A. (2017a-online early release). Applied problem solving in children with ADHD: the mediating roles of working memory and mathematical calculation. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. doi: 10.1007/s10802-017-0312-7.
  33. Friedman, L. M., Rapport, M. D., Raiker, J. S., Orban, S. A., & Eckrich, S. J. (2017b). Reading comprehension in boys with ADHD: the mediating roles of working memory and orthographic conversion. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 45, 273–287.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Friso-van den Bos, I., Van der Ven, S. H. G., Kroesbergen, E. H., & Van Luit, J. E. H. (2013). Working memory and mathematics in primary school children: a meta-analysis. Educational Research Review, 10, 29–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fritz, M. S., & MacKinnon, D. P. (2007). Required sample size to detect the mediated effect. Psychological Science, 18(3), 233–239.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. Gadow, K., Sprafkin, J., Salisbury, H., Schneider, J., & Loney, J. (2004). Further validity evidence for the teacher version of the child symptom inventory-4. School Psychology Quarterly, 19, 50–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gathercole, S. E., Durling, E., Evans, M., Jeffcock, S., & Stone, S. (2008). Working memory abilities and children’s performance in laboratory analogues of classroom activities. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 22(8), 1019–1037.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gaub, M., & Carlson, C. L. (1997). Gender differences in ADHD: a meta-analysis and critical review. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36(8), 1036–1045.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Good, R. H., & Kaminski, R. A. (Eds.). (2001). Dynamic indicators of basic early literacy skills (5th ed.). Eugene: Institute for the Development of Educational Achievement.Google Scholar
  40. Gray, S., Green, S., Alt, M., Hogan, T., Kuo, T., Brinkley, S., & Cowan, N. (2017). The structure of working memory in young children and its relation to intelligence. Journal of Memory and Language, 92, 183–201.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Hayes, A. F. (2009). Beyond Baron and Kenny: statistical mediation analysis in the new millennium. Communication Monographs, 76(4), 408–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hayes, A.F. (2014). PROCESS for SPSS (Version 2.12.1) (computer software). Columbus: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  43. Hinshaw, S.P. (2002). Is ADHD an impairing condition in childhood and adolescence? In P.S. Jensen, & J.R. Cooper (Eds.), Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: state of the science—best practices (pp. 5-1-5-21). Kingston: Civic Research Institute.Google Scholar
  44. Huitt, W., Monetti, D., & Hummel, J. (2009). Designing direct instruction. In C. Reigeluth & A. Carr-Chellman (Eds.), Instructional design theories and models: Volume III, building a common knowledgebase (pp. 73–97). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  45. Imeraj, L., Antrop, I., Sonuga-Barke, E., Deboutte, D., Deschepper, E., Bal, S., & Roeyers, H. (2013). The impact of instructional context on classroom on-task behavior: a matched comparison of children with ADHD and non-ADHD classmates. Journal of School Psychology, 51(4), 487–498.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Jaroslawska, A. J., Gathercole, S. E., Allen, R. J., & Holmes, J. (2016). Following instructions from working memory: why does action at encoding and recall help? Memory & Cognition, 44(8), 1183–1191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kane, M. J., Hambrick, D. Z., Tuholski, S. W., Wilhelm, O., Payne, T. W., & Engle, R. W. (2004). The generality of working memory capacity: a latent-variable approach to verbal and visuospatial memory span and reasoning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 133(2), 189–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Karalunas, S. L., Geurts, H. M., Konrad, K., Bender, S., & Nigg, J. T. (2014). Annual research review: reaction time variability in ADHD and autism spectrum disorders: measurement and mechanisms of a proposed trans-diagnostic phenotype. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 55(6), 685–710.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. Kasper, L. J., Alderson, R. M., & Hudec, K. L. (2012). Moderators of working memory deficits in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 32(7), 605–617.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Kaufman, J., Birmaher, B., Brent, D., Rao, U., Flynn, C., Moreci, P., et al. (1997). Schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia for school-age children-present and lifetime version (K-SADS-PL): initial reliability and validity data. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36(7), 980–988.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Kofler, M. J., Rapport, M. D., & Alderson, R. M. (2008). Quantifying ADHD classroom inattentiveness, its moderators, and variability: a meta-analytic review. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49, 59–69.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Kofler, M. J., Rapport, M. D., Bolden, J., Sarver, D. E., & Raiker, J. S. (2010). ADHD and working memory: the impact of central executive deficits and exceeding storage/rehearsal capacity on observed inattentive behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 38(2), 149–161.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Kofler, M. J., Rapport, M. D., Bolden, J., Sarver, D. E., Raiker, J. S., & Alderson, R. M. (2011). Working memory deficits and social problems in children with ADHD. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 39, 805–817.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Kofler, M. J., Rapport, M. D., Sarver, D. E., Raiker, J. S., Orban, S. A., Friedman, L. M., & Kolomeyer, E. G. (2013). Reaction time variability in ADHD: a meta-analytic review of 319 studies. Clinical Psychology Review, 33(6), 795–811.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Kofler, M. J., Alderson, R. M., Raiker, J. S., Bolden, J., Sarver, D. E., & Rapport, M. D. (2014). Working memory and intraindividual variability as neurocognitive indicators in ADHD: examining competing model predictions. Neuropsychology, 28, 459–471.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Kofler, M. J., Raiker, J. S., Sarver, D. E., Wells, E. L., & Soto, E. F. (2016). Is hyperactivity ubiquitous in ADHD or dependent on environmental demands? Evidence from meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 46, 12–24.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. Lauth, G. W., Heubeck, B. G., & Mackowiak, K. (2006). Observation of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity (ADHD) problems in three natural classroom contexts. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 76(2), 385–404.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Luck, D., Danion, J. M., Marrer, C., Pham, B. T., Gounot, D., & Foucher, J. (2010). The right parahippocampal gyrus contributes to the formation and maintenance of bound information in working memory. Brain and Cognition, 72(2), 255–263.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Lui, M., & Tannock, R. (2007). Working memory and inattentive behaviour in a community sample of children. Behavioral and Brain Functions, 3(12), 1–11.Google Scholar
  60. Luman, M., Oosterlaan, J., & Sergeant, J. A. (2005). The impact of reinforcement contingencies on AD/HD: a review and theoretical appraisal. Clinical Psychology Review, 25(2), 183–213.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Luna, B., Minshew, N. J., Garver, K. E., Lazar, N. A., Thulborn, K. R., Eddy, W. F., & Sweeney, J. A. (2002). Neocortical system abnormalities in autism: an fMRI study of spatial working memory. Neurology, 59(6), 834–840.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Martinussen, R., & Tannock, R. (2006). Working memory impairments in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder with and without comorbid language learning disorders. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 28(7), 1073–1094.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. McQuade, J. D., & Hoza, B. (2008). Peer problems in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: current status and future directions. Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 14(4), 320–324.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Melby-Lervåg, M., & Hulme, C. (2013). Is working memory training effective? A meta-analytic review. Developmental Psychology, 49(2), 270.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Molina, B.S., Hinshaw, S.P., Swanson, J.M., Arnold, L.E., Vitiello, B., Jensen, P.S., … MTA Cooperative Group. (2009). The MTA at 8 years: prospective follow-up of children treated for combined-type ADHD in a multisite study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 48(5), 484–500.Google Scholar
  66. Nee, D. E., Brown, J. W., Askren, M. K., Berman, M. G., Demiralp, E., Krawitz, A., & Jonides, J. (2013). A meta-analysis of executive components of working memory. Cerebral Cortex, 23(2), 264–282.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Noldus Information Technology (2011). The observer XT reference manual version 10.5. Wageningen: Author.Google Scholar
  68. Normand, S., Schneider, B. H., Lee, M. D., Maisonneuve, M. F., Chupetlovska-Anastasova, A., Kuehn, S. M., & Robaey, P. (2013). Continuities and changes in the friendships of children with and without ADHD: a longitudinal, observational study. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 41(7), 1161–1175.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Pelham Jr., W. E., Fabiano, G. A., & Massetti, G. M. (2005). Evidence-based assessment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 34(3), 449–476.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Polanczyk, G., de Lima, M. S., Horta, B. L., Biederman, J., & Rohde, L. A. (2007). The worldwide prevalence of ADHD: a systematic review and metaregression analysis. American Journal of Psychiatry, 164(6), 942–948.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Porrino, L. J., Rapoport, J. L., Behar, D., Sceery, W., Ismond, D. R., & Bunney, W. E. (1983). A naturalistic assessment of the motor activity of hyperactive boys: I. Comparison with normal controls. Archives of General Psychiatry, 40(6), 681–687.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Power, T. J. (1992). Contextual factors in vigilance testing of children with ADHD. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 20(6), 579–593.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Rabiner, D., Coie, J. D., & Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. (2000). Early attention problems and children’s reading achievement: a longitudinal investigation. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39(7), 859–867.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. Raiker, J. S., Rapport, M. D., Kofler, M. J., & Sarver, D. E. (2012). Objectively-measured impulsivity and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): testing competing predictions from the working memory and behavioral inhibition models of ADHD. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 40(5), 699–713.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Rapport, M. D., Denney, C., DuPaul, G. J., & Gardner, M. J. (1994). Attention deficit disorder and methylphenidate: normalization rates, clinical effectiveness, and response prediction in 76 children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 33(6), 882–893.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Rapport, M. D., Alderson, R. M., Kofler, M. J., Sarver, D. E., Bolden, J., & Sims, V. (2008). Working memory deficits in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): the contribution of central executive and subsystem processes. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36(6), 825–837.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Rapport, M. D., Bolden, J., Kofler, M. J., Sarver, D. E., Raiker, J. S., & Alderson, R. M. (2009). Hyperactivity in boys with attentiondeficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): A ubiquitous core symptoms or manifestation of working memory deficits. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 37, 521–534.Google Scholar
  78. Rapport, M. D., Orban, S. A., Kofler, M. J., & Friedman, L. M. (2013). Do programs designed to train working memory, other executive functions, and attention benefit children with ADHD? A meta-analytic review of cognitive, academic, and behavioral outcomes. Clinical Psychology Review, 33(8), 1237–1252.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Re, A. M., Lovero, F., Cornoldi, C., & Passolunghi, M. C. (2016). Difficulties of children with ADHD symptoms in solving mathematical problems when information must be updated. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 59, 186–193.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Redick, T. S., & Lindsey, D. R. (2013). Complex span and n-back measures of working memory: a meta-analysis. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 20(6), 1102–1113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Rhodes, S. M., Park, J., Seth, S., & Coghill, D. R. (2012). A comprehensive investigation of memory impairment in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and oppositional defiant disorder. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53(2), 128–137.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Riddle, M. A., Yershova, K., Lazzaretto, D., Paykina, N., Yenokyan, G., Greenhill, L., et al. (2013). The preschool attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder treatment study (PATS) 6-year follow-up. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 52(3), 264–278.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. Rivkin, S. G., & Schiman, J. C. (2015). Instruction time, classroom quality, and academic achievement. The Economic Journal, 125(588), F425–F448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Roberts, W., Milich, R., & Barkley, R. (2015). Primary symptoms, diagnostic criteria, subtyping, and prevalence of ADHD. In R. Barkley (Ed.), Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (4th ed., pp. 50–80). New York: Guildford.Google Scholar
  85. Rosen, V. M., & Engle, R. W. (1997). Forward and backward serial recall. Intelligence, 25, 37–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Sarver, D. E., Rapport, M. D., Kofler, M. J., Scanlan, S. W., Raiker, J. S., Altro, T. A., & Bolden, J. (2012). Attention problems, phonological short-term memory, and visuospatial short-term memory: differential effects on near-and long-term scholastic achievement. Learning and Individual Differences, 22, 8–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Schmiedek, F., Lövdén, M., & Lindenberger, U. (2014). A task is a task is a task: putting complex span, n-back, and other working memory indicators in psychometric context. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 1475.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. Sergeant, J. A., Oosterlaan, J., & Van der Meere, J. (1999). Informationprocessing and energetic factors in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. InH. C. Quay & A. E. Hogan (Eds.), Handbook of disruptive behavior disorders (pp. 75–104). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.Google Scholar
  89. Shaw, M., Hodgkins, P., Caci, H., Young, S., Kahle, J., Woods, A. G., & Arnold, L. E. (2012). A systematic review and analysis of long-term outcomes in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: effects of treatment and non-treatment. BMC Medicine, 10(99), 1–15.Google Scholar
  90. Shrout, P. E., & Bolger, N. (2002). Mediation in experimental and nonexperimental studies: new procedures and recommendations. Psychological Methods, 7(4), 422–445.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Skansgaard, E. P., & Burns, G. L. (1998). Comparison of DSM-IV ADHD combined and predominantly inattention types: correspondence between teacher ratings and direct observations of inattentive, hyperactivity/impulsivity, slow cognitive tempo, oppositional defiant, and overt conduct disorder symptoms. Child and Family Behavior Therapy, 20, 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Slavin, R. E. (2012). Educational Psychology: theory and practice: Edition 10. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  93. Spira, E. G., & Fischel, J. E. (2005). The impact of preschool inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity on social and academic development: a review. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46(7), 755–773.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Swanson, H. L., & Beebe-Frankenberger, M. (2004). The relationship between working memory and mathematical problem solving in children at risk and not at risk for serious math difficulties. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96(3), 471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Swanson, H. L., & Fung, W. (2016). Working memory components and problem-solving accuracy: are there multiple pathways? Journal of Educational Psychology, 108(8), 1153–1177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Swanson, H. L., & Jerman, O. (2006). Math disabilities: a selective meta-analysis of the literature. Review of Educational Research, 76(2), 249–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Swanson, L., & Kim, K. (2007). Working memory, short-term memory, and naming speed as predictors of children's mathematical performance. Intelligence, 35(2), 151–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Swanson, H. L., & Sachse-Lee, C. (2001). Mathematical problem solving and working memory in children with learning disabilities: both executive and phonological processes are important. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 79(3), 294–321.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics (5th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon/Pearson Education.Google Scholar
  100. Tannock, R., Ickowicz, A., & Schachar, R. (1995). Differential effects of methylphenidate on working memory in ADHD children with and without comorbid anxiety. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 34(7), 886–896.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Todd, J. J., & Marois, R. (2004). Capacity limit of visual short-term memory in human posterior parietal cortex. Nature, 428(6984), 751–754.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Vanderwal, T., Eilbott, J., Finn, E.S., Craddock, R.C., Turnbull, A.G., Castellanos, F.X. (2017-online early release). Individual differences in functional connectivity during naturalistic viewing conditions. NeuroImage doi: 10.1101/084665.
  103. Vile Junod, R. E., DuPaul, G. J., Jitendra, A. K., Volpe, R. J., & Cleary, K. S. (2006). Classroom observations of students with and without ADHD: differences across types of engagement. Journal of School Psychology, 44(2), 87–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Wager, T. D., & Smith, E. E. (2003). Neuroimaging studies of working memory. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 3(4), 255–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Wechsler, D. (2007). Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children—Fifth Edition. Technical and interpretive manual. San Antonio: The Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  106. Whalen, C. K., Henker, B., Collins, B. E., Finck, D., & Dotemoto, S. (1979). A social ecology of hyperactive boys: medication effects in structured classrooms. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 12, 65–81.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  107. Willcutt, E. G. (2012). The prevalence of DSM-IV attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a meta-analytic review. Neurotherapeutics, 9(3), 490–499.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  108. Williamson, D., & Johnston, C. (2015). Gender differences in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a narrative review. Clinical Psychology Review, 40, 15–27.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Willoughby, M. T., Blanton, Z. E., & Family Life Project Investigators. (2015). Replication and external validation of a bi-factor parameterization of attention deficit/hyperactivity symptomatology. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 44, 68–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Yang, T., Gathercole, S. E., & Allen, R. J. (2014). Benefit of enactment over oral repetition of verbal instruction does not require additional working memory during encoding. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 21, 186–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Zentall, S. S., & Zentall, T. (1983). Optimal stimulation: A model of disordered activity and performance in normal and deviant children. Psychological Bulletin, 94, 446–471.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sarah A. Orban
    • 1
  • Mark D. Rapport
    • 1
  • Lauren M. Friedman
    • 1
  • Samuel J. Eckrich
    • 1
  • Michael J. Kofler
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Central FloridaOrlandoUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyFlorida State UniversityTallahasseeUSA

Personalised recommendations