Study the impact of CuSO4 and H2SO4 concentrations on lateral growth of hydrogen evolution assisted copper electroplating
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Hydrogen evolution assisted (HEA) electroplating has shown some potentials to be used for rapid lateral copper electrodeposition. A lateral electric field was established between the two cathodes while the voltage between the anode and one cathode was set to be high enough for water electrolysis and hydrogen evolution. In this work, the effect of concentrations of cupric sulfate (CuSO4) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) in the electrolyte on the lateral deposition rate and the deposited layer morphology was studied. We have found that incrementing the acid concentration in the aqueous acidic solution to 1.0 M (H2SO4) and 1.5 M (H2SO4) accelerates the deposition rate to 15.38 and 15.6 μm s−1, respectively, by the interaction of hydrogen bubbles with the surface of the electrode being plated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique was employed to analyze the morphology of the deposited copper after the completion of the procedure. The technique was also tested for soldering electronic components which demonstrated the potential of using the method for soldering at low temperatures suitable for wearable electronics.
KeywordsElectrodeposition Copper sulfate Sulfuric acid Hydrogen evolution assisted (HEA) electroplating
This work was supported by the NSF Florida-Georgia Louis Stokes Alliance for Minority Participation (FGLSAMP) Bridge to the Doctorate award (HRD #1612347). S. Rosa-Ortiz also received support from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation University Center of Exemplary Mentoring (UCEM) grant award G-2017-9717.
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