Electrochemical investigation of Pt–Pd nanoparticles formation–reduction kinetics and nucleation mechanisms

  • Shamim Pourrahimi
  • Milad RezaeiEmail author
  • Seyed Hadi Tabaian
Research Article
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Electrodeposition


In this research, a comprehensive investigation of nanoparticle formation during electrodeposition of Pt, Pd, and Pt–Pd from 1 mM PdCl2 and 1 mM H2PtCl6 in the presence of 0.5 M H2SO4 electrolyte on glassy carbon electrode was conducted. By employing cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry together with the scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, some kinetic parameters were obtained and the mechanisms of Pd and Pt nucleation, microstructure, and physical properties were clarified. It was shown that during Pt–Pd particles formation, the electrodeposition of Pd was controlled by diffusion of Pd2+ ions, whereas Pt electrodeposition was a charge transfer-controlled process. In addition, as a result of the higher rate of Pd nucleation, at the initial times of co-electrodeposition, Pd clusters were formed, then the Pt was electrodeposited over the pre-nucleated/pre-grown Pd. Consequently, it leads to Pt enrichment on the nanoparticle surface (84%). In other words, the co-electrodeposition of Pt–Pd not only reduces the size of deposited particles but also can minimize the overpotential required for deposition. Furthermore, as XPS results supports, the synthesized nanoparticles have alloyed/partially alloyed structure rather than core-shell or separate single elemental nanoparticles.

Graphic Abstract


Electrodeposition Pt–Pd particles Electrode kinetics Diffusion Charge transfer Growth 



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© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Materials and Metallurgical EngineeringAmirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic)TehranIran

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