Journal of Applied Electrochemistry

, Volume 49, Issue 10, pp 1043–1054 | Cite as

The influence of current density and bath temperature on electrodeposition of rhodium film from sulfate–phosphate aqueous solutions

  • Wangping WuEmail author
  • Jianwen Liu
  • Yue ZhangEmail author
  • Xiang Wang
  • Yi ZhangEmail author
Research Article
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Electrodeposition


Rhodium films were electrodeposited galvanostatically on copper–zinc alloy substrates from sulfate–phosphate aqueous solutions, in order to obtain a smooth, dense, and thick Rh film for electrical contacts. The influence of current density and bath temperature on phases, crystal structure, microstructure, and deposition rate of the film was studied. The phases and crystal structure, as well as microstructure of the film were determined by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The results showed that the current density and bath temperature had a significant influence on electrodeposition of rhodium film. The particles or aggregates on the surface evolved from fine to coarse and large with the increase of current density and bath temperature. By adjusting the deposition conditions, the optimized current density and bath temperature were 6.4–12.7 mA cm−2 and 50 °C, respectively. The film was composed of polycrystalline phase with monometallic form. The film was uniform and dense at low current density. The thickness of the film was up to 1.38–2.1 μm. At the optimal temperature of 50 °C, the surface of the film was smooth and fine. At the same time, the electrodeposition mechanism of the film was discussed.

Graphic abstract

Rhodium films were electrodeposited from sulfate–phosphate aqueous solutions. The influence of current density and bath temperature on electrodeposition of the film was studied, and at the same time, the electrodeposition mechanism of the film was addressed.


Electrodeposition Rhodium film Current density Bath temperature 



The authors wish to thank Mr. Jiefa Shen from Department of Biochemical Engineering, School of Pharmaceutical Engineering & Life Science, Changzhou University for the preparation of rhodium electrodeposition solution and Dr. Fred Edmond BOAFO from School of Energy Systems Engineering, Kongju National University for their help in English language of this manuscript. This work has been partially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Number: 51875053) and the Funding of Changzhou high technology research key laboratory of mould advanced manufacturing (Grant Number: CM20173001). Dr. Wangping Wu also thanks Ph. D student—Mr. Näther Johannes from Hochschule Mittweida University of Applied Sciences to provide one important reference book—‘Electrodeposition of the precious metals: osmium, iridium, rhodium, rhenium, ruthenium,’ and at the same time thanks the China Scholarship Council (CSC) an “Agreement for Study Abroad for CSC Sponsored Chinese Citizens” awarded a scholarship under the State Scholarship Fund to pursue study in Germany as a Visiting Scholar.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

We declare that we do not have any commercial or associative interest that represents a conflict of interest in connection with the work submitted.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Electrochemistry and Corrosion Laboratory, School of Mechanical EngineeringChangzhou UniversityChangzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Department of Biochemical Engineering, School of Pharmaceutical Engineering & Life ScienceChangzhou UniversityChangzhouPeople’s Republic of China

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