Journal of Applied Electrochemistry

, Volume 49, Issue 10, pp 963–978 | Cite as

Influence of bubbles on micro-dimples prepared by electrochemical micromachining

  • Xifang ZhangEmail author
  • Hua Li
  • Zhen Yin
  • Kun Ren
Research Article
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Electrochemical Processes


Micro-dimples are the basic surface textures that have played an important role in reducing or increasing friction, anti-wear, decreasing vibration, anti-adhesion, and creeping. Electrochemical micromachining (EMM) is a popular method for preparing micro-dimples. The method of sandwich-like electrochemical micromachining (SLEMM) can be used to enhance machining accuracy of micro-dimples, due to the electrolytic products accumulated on the workpiece surface in the enclosed unit of SLEMM. Therefore, this paper focuses on exploring the influence of bubbles accumulated on the workpiece theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical analysis indicated that 0.2 s machining time is required, and the theoretical maximum depth of micro-dimple is 7.3 μm when the electrochemical dissolution reaction is terminated. The CCD camera was employed to observe the process of SLEMM, and the observations indicated that the changes of gas bubbles are very complex and the electrolytic products accumulated on the workpiece surface have a significant influence on the preparing of micro-dimples. In addition, the experimental results indicate that the dimensions of micro-dimple vary little and the maximum depth of 4 μm for micro-dimples could be prepared with the increase of applied voltage, machining time, and thickness of mask, because of the electrolytic products accumulated on the workpiece during SLEMM.

Graphic abstract


Surface textures Micro-dimples Electrochemical micromachining (EMM) Sandwich-like electrochemical micromachining (SLEMM) Bubbles 



The work described in this study was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of the Jiangsu Higher Education Institution of China (Grant 18KJB460025), Project supported by the Foundation for Young Scholars of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant BK20180969), and the Suzhou Science and Technology project (Grant SYG201644).


  1. 1.
    Wang DW, Mo JL, Wang ZG (2013) Mechanism of the effect of groove-textured surface on the friction vibration and noise. J Mech Eng 49:112–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cho M (2016) Friction and wear of a hybrid surface texturing of polyphenylene sulfide-filled micropores. Wear 346:158–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zupančič M, Može M, Gregorčič P, Golobič L (2017) Nanosecond laser texturing of uniformly and non-uniformly wettable micro structured metal surfaces for enhanced boiling heat transfer. Appl Surf Sci 399:480–490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dai QW, Huang W, Wang XL (2014) Surface roughness and orientation effects on the thermo-capillary migration of a droplet of paraffin oil. Exp Therm Fluid Sci 57:200–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Zhang HM, Yang J, Chen BB, Liu C, Zhang MS, Li CS (2015) Fabrication of superhydrophobic textured steel surface for anti-corrosion and tribological properties. Appl Surf Sci 359:905–910CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Menezes PL, Kishore Kailas SV (2010) Influence of die surface textures during metal forming-a study using experiments and simulation. Mater Manuf Process 25:1030–1039CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Syahputra HP, Ko TJ (2013) Application of image processing to micro-milling process for surface texturing. Int J Precis Eng Manuf 14:1507–1512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Nieslony P, Krolczyk GM, Wojciechowski S, Chudy R, Zak K, Maruda RW (2018) Surface quality and topographic inspection of variable compliance part after precise turning. Appl Surf Sci 434:91–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Zhang JY, Meng YG (2012) A study of surface texturing of carbon steel by photochemical machining. J Mater Process Technol 212:2133–2140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Nivas JJJ, He ST, Song ZM, Rubano A, Vecchione A (2017) Femtosecond laser surface structuring of silicon with Gaussian and optical vortex beams. Appl Surf Sci 418:565–571CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Vilhena LM, Ramalho A, Cavaleiro A (2017) Grooved surface texturing by electrical discharge machining (EDM) under different lubrication regimes. Lubr Sci 29:493–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Winkelmann C, Lang W (2013) Influence of the electrode distance and metal ion concentration on the resulting structure in electrochemical micromachining with structured counter electrodes. Int J Mach Tool Manu 72:25–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Madore C, Landolt D (1997) Electrochemical micromachining of controlled topographies on titanium for biological applications. J Micromech Microeng 7:270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hao XQ, Wang L, Wang QD, Guo FL, Tang YP, Ding YC, Lu BH (2011) Surface micro-texturing of metallic cylindrical surface with proximity rolling-exposure lithography and electrochemical micromachining. Appl Surf Sci 257:8906–8911CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chauvy PF, Hoffmann P, Landolt D (2001) Electrochemical micromachining of titanium through a laser patterned oxide film. Electrochem Solid State 4:C31–C34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chen XL, Qu NS, Li HS, Xu ZY (2015) Pulsed electrochemical micromachining for generating micro-dimple arrays on a cylindrical surface with a flexible mask. Appl Surf Sci 343:141–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zhu D, Qu NS, Li HS, Zeng YB, Li DL, Qian SQ (2009) Electrochemical micromachining of microstructures of micro hole and dimple array. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 58:177–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Nouraeiz S, Roy S (2008) Electrochemical process for micropattern transfer without photolithography: a modeling analysis. J Electrochem Soc 155:D97–D103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Parreira JG, Gallo CA, Costa HL (2012) New advances on maskless electrochemical texturing (MECT) for tribological purposes. Surf Coat Technol 212:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wei H, Wang G, Liu G (2016) Formation of porous hydrophobic stainless steel surfaces by maskless electrochemical machining. Surf Eng 32:132–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Reich S, Schönfeld P, Wagener P (2017) Pulsed laser ablation in liquids: Impact of the bubble dynamics on particle formation. J Colloid Interface Sci 489:106–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Zhang XF, Qu NS, Chen XL (2016) Sandwich-like electrochemical micromachining of micro-dimples. Surf Coat Technol 302:438–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Tijum RV, Pajak PT (2008) Simulation of production processes using the multiphysics approach: The electrochemical machining process. In: Proceedings of the European COMSOL ConferenceGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ghoshal B, Bhattacharyya B (2014) Shape control in micro borehole generation by EMM with the assistance of vibration of tool. Precis Eng 38:127–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Shimasaki T, Kunieda M (2016) Study on influences of bubbles on ECM gap phenomena using transparent electrode. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 65:225–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Feng X, Zhou JZ, Mei YF, Huang S, Sheng J, Zhu WL (2015) Improving tribological performance of gray cast iron by laser peening in dynamic strain aging temperature regime. Chin J Mech Eng 28:904–910CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Parmar UK (2016) The effects of micro-dimple texture on the friction and thermal behavior of a point contact. Wright State University, DaytonGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ronen A, Etsion I, Kligerman Y (2001) Friction-reducing surfacetexturing in reciprocating automotive components. Tribol Trans 44(3):359–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Zhang XF, Qu NS, Fang XL (2017) Sandwich-like electrochemical micromachining of micro-dimples using a porous metal cathode. Surf Coat Technol 311:357–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Zhang XF, Qu NS (2018) Improvement in machining accuracy of micro-dimples fabricated in a sandwich-like electrochemical micromachining unit using a porous cathode. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 99:1661–1671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Zhang XF, Li H, Yin Z, Kun R (2019) Investigations of micro-dimples prepared by the multiple sandwich-like electrochemical micromachining. Int J Electrochem Sci 14:427–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Pan YQ, Hou ZB, Qu NS (2019) Improvement in accuracy of micro-dimple arrays prepared by micro-electrochemical machining with high-pressure hydrostatic electrolyte. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 100:1767–1777CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Mechanical EngineeringSuzhou University of Science and TechnologySuzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Suzhou Key Laboratory of Precision and Efficient Manufacturing TechnologySuzhouPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations