Advertisement

Journal of Applied Electrochemistry

, Volume 49, Issue 7, pp 671–680 | Cite as

Engineering self-standing Si–Mo–O based nanostructure arrays as anodes for new era lithium-ion batteries

  • B. Deniz KarahanEmail author
  • K. Amine
Research Article
  • 58 Downloads
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Batteries

Abstract

For the first time, Si–Mo–O helices have been produced by the ion-assisted glancing angle electron beam co-evaporation of molybdenum oxide and silicon. Since the electron beam evaporation process forms metastable particles through the dissociation of the source material, a film that contains compounds of different combinations of molybdenum, silicon, and oxygen atoms is produced. This complex structure’s lithiation mechanism is different from that of the traditional electrodes in lithium-ion batteries. In the paper, the nanostructured Si–Mo–O anode was cycled in different potential windows (0.2–1.2 V, 0.2–3.0 V, 5 mV–3.0 V vs. lithium) at different rates. The anode remained cycling even at 0.7 mA cm−2, which makes it practical for micro- and solid-state battery applications. This research reveals that by adjusting the cutoff voltages, different particles could be activated in the anode structure to react with lithium, resulting in different performances. The electrode delivers higher capacity when cycled between 5 mV and 3.0 V windows and keeps cycling for 200 cycles under the load of 5 µA cm−2. This performance is believed to be related to the structural, morphological, and the compositional properties of the coating.

Graphical abstract

Keywords

Oxide thin film anode Molybdenum Silicon Glancing angle deposition Structured thin films 

Notes

Acknowledgement

The author thanks Prof. Dr. Özgül Keleş, Dr. Levent Eryilmaz, and Dr. Robert Erck for their contributions to the study. Also to be thanked are Prof. Dr. Mehmet Ali Gülgüt, Prof. Dr. Gültekin Göller, Meltem Sezen, and Hüseyin Sezer for their help in material characterization. K.A. gratefully acknowledge support from the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Argonne National Laboratory is operated for DOE Office of Science by UChicago Argonne, LLC, under contract no. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

References

  1. 1.
    Wang Y, Liu B, Li Q, Cartmell S, Ferrara S, Deng ZD, Xiao J (2015) Lithium and lithium ion batteries for applications in microelectronic devices: a review. J Power Sources 286:330–345Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Jin Y, Zhu B, Lu Z, Liu N, Zhu J (2017) Challenges and recent progress in the development of Si anodes for lithium-ion battery. Adv Energy Mater 7(23):1700715Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Son Y, Sim S, Ma H, Choi M, Son Y, Park N, Cho J, Park M (2018) Exploring critical factors affecting strain distribution in 1D silicon-based nanostructures for lithium-ıon battery anodes. Adv Mater 30(15):1705430Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Shi F, Song Z, Ross PN, Somorjai GA, Ritchie RO, Komvopoulos K (2016) Failure mechanisms of single-crystal silicon electrodes in lithium-ion batteries. Nat Commun 7:11886Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Zhou G, Li H, Sun H, Yu D, Wang Y, Huang X, Chen L, Zhang Z (1999) Controlled Li doping of Si nanowires by electrochemical insertion method. Appl Phys Lett 75(16):2447–2449Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Li H, Huang X, Chen L, Zhou G, Zhang Z, Yu D, Mo YJ, Pei N (2000) The crystal structural evolution of nano-Si anode caused by lithium insertion and extraction at room temperature. Solid State Ion 135(1–4):181–191Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Peng K, Jie J, Zhang W, Lee S-T (2008) Silicon nanowires for rechargeable lithium-ion battery anodes. Appl Phys Lett 93(3):033105Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Su X, Wu Q, Li J, Xiao X, Lott A, Lu W, Sheldon W, Wu J (2014) Adv Silicon-based nanomaterials for lithium-ion batteries: a review. Energy Mater 4(1300882):1–23Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Teki R, Datta MK, Krishnan R, Parker TC, Lu TM, Kumta PN, Koratkar N (2009) Nanostructured silicon anodes for lithium ion rechargeable batteries. Small 5(20):2236–2242Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chan CK, Peng H, Liu G, McIlwrath K, Zhang XF, Huggins RA, Cui Y (2011) High-performance lithium battery anodes using silicon nanowires. In: Dusatre V (ed) Materials for sustainable energy: a collection of peer-reviewed research and review articles from nature publishing group. World Scientific Publishing Co, Singapore, pp 187–191Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Holmes JD, Johnston KP, Doty RC, Korgel BA (2000) Control of thickness and orientation of solution-grown silicon nanowires. Science 287(5457):1471–1473Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sökmen Ü, Stranz A, Fündling S, Merzsch S, Neumann R, Wehmann H-H, Peiner E, Waag A (2010) Shallow and deep dry etching of silicon using ICP cryogenic reactive ion etching process. Microsyst Technol 16(5):863–870Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Choi JW, McDonough J, Jeong S, Yoo JS, Chan CK, Cui Y (2010) Stepwise nanopore evolution in one-dimensional nanostructures. Nano Lett 10(4):1409–1413Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kolb F, Hofmeister H, Scholz R, Zacharias M, Gösele U, Ma D, Lee S-T (2004) Analysis of silicon nanowires grown by combining SiO evaporation with the VLS mechanism. J Electrochem Soc 151(7):G472–G475Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Morales AM, Lieber CM (1998) A laser ablation method for the synthesis of crystalline semiconductor nanowires. Science 279(5348):208–211Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Au M, He Y, Zhao Y, Ghassemi H, Yassar RS, Garcia-Diaz B, Adams T (2011) Silicon and silicon–copper composite nanorods for anodes of Li-ion rechargeable batteries. J Power Sources 196(22):9640–9647Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fleischauer M, Topple J, Dahn J (2005) Combinatorial investigations of Si-M (M = Cr + Ni, Fe, Mn) thin film negative electrode materials. Electrochem Solid-State Lett 8(2):A137–A140Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Anani A, Huggins R (1992) Multinary alloy electrodes for solid state batteries I. A phase diagram approach for the selection and storage properties determination of candidate electrode materials. J Power Sources 38(3):351–362Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Netz A, Huggins RA, Weppner W (2003) The formation and properties of amorphous silicon as negative electrode reactant in lithium systems. J Power Sources 119:95–100Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kwon Y, Kim H, Doo SG, Cho J (2007) Sn0.9 Si0.1/carbon core − shell nanoparticles for high-density lithium storage materials. Chem Mater 19(5):982–986Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Courtel FM, Duguay D, Abu-Lebdeh Y, Davidson IJ (2012) Investigation of CrSi2 and MoSi2 as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. J Power Sources 202:269–275Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Tysyachny V, Shembel E, Apostolova R, Nagirny V, Kylyvnyk K, Eskova N (2004) Studies of the lithium ion transport properties in electrolytic molybdenum oxides. Solid State Ion 169(1–4):135–137Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Palanisamy K, Kim Y, Kim H, Kim JM, Yoon W-S (2015) Self-assembled porous MoO2/graphene microspheres towards high performance anodes for lithium ion batteries. J Power Sources 275:351–361Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Meduri P, Clark E, Kim JH, Dayalan E, Sumanasekera GU, Sunkara MK (2012) MoO3–x nanowire arrays as stable and high-capacity anodes for lithium ion batteries. Nano Lett 12(4):1784–1788Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Liu Y, Zhang H, Ouyang P, Li Z (2013) One-pot hydrothermal synthesized MoO2 with high reversible capacity for anode application in lithium ion battery. Electrochim Acta 102:429–435Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ko YN, Park SB, Jung KY, Kang YC (2013) One-pot facile synthesis of ant-cave-structured metal oxide–carbon microballs by continuous process for use as anode materials in Li-ion batteries. Nano Lett 13(11):5462–5466Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hwang C-M, Lim C-H, Yang J-H, Park J-W (2009) Electrochemical properties of negative SiMox electrodes deposited on a roughened substrate for rechargeable lithium batteries. J Power Sources 194(2):1061–1067Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Polat BD, Eryilmaz OL, Erck R, Keleş O, Erdemir A, Amine K (2014) Structured SiCu thin films in LiB as anodes. Thin Solid Films 572:134–141Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Yao Z, Stiglich J, Sudarshan T (1999) Molybdenum silicide based materials and their properties. J Mater Eng Perform 8(3):291–304Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sidorov T (1967) Vibration spectra of three-component silicate glasses and the role of chemical elements in the structure of glass. J Appl Spectrosc 7(3):258–261Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Atuchin V, Gavrilova T, Kostrovsky V, Pokrovsky L, Troitskaia I (2008) Morphology and structure of hexagonal MoO3 nanorods. Inorg Mater 44(6):622Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wang J, Zhao H, He J, Wang C, Wang J (2011) Nano-sized SiOx/C composite anode for lithium ion batteries. J Power Sources 196(10):4811–4815Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Sun Y, Liu N, Cui Y (2016) Promises and challenges of nanomaterials for lithium-based rechargeable batteries. Nat Energy 1(7):16071Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Sun Y, Hu X, Luo W, Huang Y (2012) Ultrafine MoO2 nanoparticles embedded in a carbon matrix as a high-capacity and long-life anode for lithium-ion batteries. J Mater Chem 22(2):425–431Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Leroux F, Nazar LF (2000) Uptake of lithium by layered molybdenum oxide and its tin exchanged derivatives: high volumetric capacity materials. Solid State Ion 133(1–2):37–50Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Huang X, Gan X, Huang Q, Yang J (2018) Electrochemical performance of thermally-grown SiO2 as diffusion barrier layer for integrated lithium-ion batteries. Front Energy 12(2):225–232Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Liang Y, Yang S, Yi Z, Lei X, Sun J, Zhou Y (2005) Low temperature synthesis of a stable MoO2 as suitable anode materials for lithium batteries. Mater Sci Eng, B 121(1–2):152–155Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Sen UK, Mitra S (2014) Synthesis of molybdenum oxides and their electrochemical properties against Li. Energy Procedia 54:740–747Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Lee SH, Kim YH, Deshpande R, Parilla PA, Whitney E, Gillaspie DT, Jones KM, Mahan AH, Zhang S, Dillon AC (2008) Reversible lithium-ion insertion in molybdenum oxide nanoparticles. Adv Mater 20(19):3627–3632Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Liu X, Liu Y, Yan X, Lan J-L, Yua Y, Yang X (2019) Ultrafine MoO3 nanoparticles embedded in porous carbon nanofibers as anodes for high-performance lithium-ion batteries. Mater Chem Front 3(120):120–126Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Fu H, Xu Z, Wang T, Li K, Shen X, Li J, Huang J (2018) Rate behavior of MoO2/graphene oxide lithium-ıon battery anodes from electrochemical contributions. J Electrochem Soc 165(3):A439–A447Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Civil Engineering Department, School of Engineering and Natural SciencesIstanbul Medipol UniversityBeykozTurkey
  2. 2.Chemical Sciences and Engineering DivisionArgonne National LaboratoryArgonneUSA

Personalised recommendations