A nitric oxide sensor fabricated through e-jet printing towards use in bioelectronics interfaces
- 37 Downloads
We have developed a methodology for electrohydrodynamic printing of a nitric oxide (NO) sensor. The primary features of this amperometric methodology include the printing of carbon and metallic-based inks, the conversion of Ag to Ag:AgCl as a reference electrode, and the deposition of a nitric oxide selective layer on the working electrode, followed by an encapsulation to define the working area. The efficacy and enhancements of multiple printed layers has been examined. Multiple working electrode chemistries and combinations are presented, including the use of silver, graphene, NiTsPc, and gold in various combinations. Selectivity for NO was accomplished via a Nafion® layer on the working electrode, effectively blocking interference from NO2− and NO3− at relatively high concentrations. The resultant flexible, thin film nitric oxide sensor is sensitive enough to monitor macrophage depolarization events without the need for additional micropipette or FRET-based electrochemical sensors. We demonstrate a valuable research tool that will have a high impact on the emerging field of synthetic biology by providing the capability to interface-engineered cellular sensors to microelectronics.
KeywordsNitric oxide Electrohydrodynamic jet e-jet 3D printing Electrochemistry Bioelectronics
Supported by ONR MURI # N000141110725.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors have no financial and/or personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work.
- 1.Ayers J (2018) Biohybrid robots are synthetic biology systems. In: Prescott TJ, Verschure PMJ (eds) Living machines: a handbook of research in biomimetic and biohybrid systems. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 483–490Google Scholar
- 4.Ferri G, Caselli E, Mattoli V, Mondini A, Mazzolai B, Dario P (2007) A biologically-inspired algorithm for gas/odor source localization in an indoor environment with no strong airflow: first experimental results. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, pp 566–571Google Scholar
- 9.Wicher D (2010) Design principles of sensory receptors. Front Cell Neurosci 4:25Google Scholar
- 12.Kaissling K-E (2017) Responses of insect olfactory neurons to single pheromone molecules. In: Olfactory concepts of insect control. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
- 34.Instruments WP (2016) ISO-NOP Macrosensor for NO MeasurementGoogle Scholar
- 35.Bioscience N Cellometer Automatic Cell Counter. Internet. http://www.nexcelom.com/Literature/App%20Note%2006005%20Immunology.pdf
- 38.Amatore C, Arbault S, Bouton C, Coffi K, Drapier JC, Ghandour H, Tong Y (2006) Monitoring in real time with a microelectrode the release of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species by a single macrophage stimulated by its membrane mechanical depolarization. ChemBioChem 7(4):653–661CrossRefGoogle Scholar