Removal of atrazine by photoelectrocatalytic process under sunlight using WN-codoped TiO2 photoanode
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The present study was focused on the degradation of Atrazine (ATZ) and major by-products (DEA, DIA, DEDIA and ATZ-OH) from water by photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) oxidation process under solar light. The undoped TiO2, sub-stoichiometric TiO2 (TiO2−x) and codoped TiO2 (TiO2:WN) photoanodes were prepared by means of a radio frequency magnetron sputtering (RF-MS) deposition process. The X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) analysis shows that the N and W atoms were incorporated into the O and Ti lattice sites of TiO2 respectively (case of TiO2:WN film), while the XPS measurements of the TiO2−x films composition was determined to be TiO1.9. The UV–Vis transmittance spectra shows that in the case of the TiO2:WN films, the presence of nitrogen and tungsten improve the optical response of TiO2 under visible range compare to the presence of oxygen vacancies in to the TiO2−x films. The experimental results under solar light with an initial concentration of ATZ (100 µg L−1) show that after 180 min of treatment, the degradation of ATZ were 34.98%, 68.57% and 94.33% using TiO2, TiO2−x and TiO2:WN photoanodes, respectively. These results of ATZ degradation proved that TiO2:WN photoanode was more photoactive under solar light. The evolution by-products of ATZ under sunlight show that the principal mechanism of ATZ degradation was the oxidation of alkyl side chain and dealkylation.
KeywordsAtrazine Photoelectrocatalytic oxidation Sub-stoichiometric TiO2 Codoped TiO2 Dealkylation
Advanced oxidation processes
Radio frequency magnetron sputtering
Titanium dioxide with oxygen vacancies
Titanium dioxide codoped with tungsten and nitrogen
X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support from the National Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) and the Fonds de recherche du Québec—Nature et technologies (FRQNT) through their strategic network Plasma-Québec.
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